О подготовке к ЕГЭ по английскому языку.


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Из опыта работы по подготовке к ЕГЭ по английскому языку учителя МОУ СОШ №1 п. Новозавидовский Горюновой Г.В. Общие сведения о ЕГЭ по иностранным языкам. В разделах «Аудирование» и «Чтение»: проверяется сформированность умений понимания какосновного содержания письменных и звучащих текстов, так и полного понимания соответствующих текстов. Кроме того, в разделе «Чтение» проверяется понимание структурно-смысловых связей текста. В разделе «Аудирование»: понимание в прослушиваемом тексте запрашиваемой информации или выявление ее отсутствия в нем.В разделе «Грамматика и лексика»: проверяются навыки применять соответствующие лексико-грамматические средства в работе с иноязычными текстами.В разделе «Письмо»: контролируется умение создавать различные типы письменных текстов. В разделе «Говорение»: практические умения устного иноязычного общения в предлагаемых коммуникативных ситуациях. Содержание КИМ для ЕГЭ по иностранным языкам (английскому, немецкому, французскому) определяется следующими документами:1. Федеральный компонент государственного образовательного стандарта среднего (полного) общего образования по иностранным языкам//Новые государственные стандарты по иностранному языку: 2-11 классы/ Образование в документах и комментариях. - М.: ACT. Астрель, 2004.2. Примерные программы по иностранным языкам//Новые государственные стандарты по иностранному языку: 2-11 классы/ Образование в документах и комментариях. - М.: ACT. Астрель, 2004.3. Программы общеобразовательных учреждений. Английский язык для 10-11 классов школ с углубленным изучением иностранных языков. - М.: Просвещение, 2005.4. Программы для общеобразовательных учреждений. Немецкий язык для общеобразовательных школ с углубленным изучением немецкого языка. - М.: Просвещение, МАРТ, 2004.Программы общеобразовательных учреждений. Французский язык для 1-11 классов школ с углубленным изучением иностранных языков. - М.: Просвещение, 2001.При разработке КИМ также учитываются:Общеевропейские компетенции владения иностранным языком: Изучение, преподавание, оценка. МГЛУ, 2003. Учебники и пособия для подготовки к ЕГЭ по английскому языку Olga AfanasyevaVirginia EvansVictoria Kopylova Мария ВербицкаяМалколм МаннСтив Тейлор-Ноулз Соловова Е.Н.СолоковаИ.Е. MalcolmMannSteve Taylore-Knowles MalcolmMannSteve Taylore-Knowles DanutaGrycaJoanna SosnowskaViktor N.Simkin Из опыта подготовки к выполнению письменных заданий Personal / informal letter. Kate's Letter 8/23/04 Holiday Inn Washington, D.C. Dear Tanya,I am writing to you to tell you about our stay in Washington, D.C. You have asked me to write about the US capital. So I am doing it in this letter. We really love the city. It is so green and so clean. It is situated on the Potomac River, on a piece of land called1 the District of Columbia, which is why people call the US capital Washington, D.C. It is not the biggest city in the Unit­ed States, but it is the most important. The buildings are not very tall, the streets and avenues are straight, green and beautiful. The longest and the biggest av­enues are named after1 American states. We have already done the centre of the city. We have been to the White House and seen the Capitol. The Capitol is really great. This is where the United States Congress meets and makes laws.The building of the White House is very beautiful with tall col­umns and the flag on the roof. It is the US president's residence. This is where the president lives and works. It is one of the most famous buildings in the world. Its name comes from the fact that it is a white house. Tourists can't see the part where thepresident lives, but they can see the Red Room, the Blue Room and the Green Room and some other rooms. By the way, the city is famous for its museums. I have been to the Natural History Mu­seum but I haven't seen the others yet. Love, Kate Dear Jane,1► How are you doing?I'm really well, but it's taken me a while to settle in. It's been for months now since I moved, so I thought I'd drop you a lineto let you know how I've been getting on.2► Dublin is a really exciting city! There's always something going on. In fact, there are so many cafes, cinemas, sports faculties and shopping centres that it's sometimes difficult to decide what to do! There are lots of interesting people here,too. Even though I've only been here for a short time, I'vealready made quite a few new friends.3► I'm really enjoying life here, but I still miss Ashby from time to time. It's more industrial here and there are a lot more traffic jams and crowds - I have to be really careful when I'm riding my bike! What I miss most though is my old friends - especially you!4► Well, that's all my news for now. Write back and let me know what you've been up to since I last saw you. You're always welcome to come and visit- I'd really love that. Say hi to the rest of the gang!Yours, Fiona We write informal letters to friends and relatives we know well, or to people our own age. An informal letter should include:• an informal greeting such as Dear/Hi + person's name or just Hi!• an introduction with opening remarks, e.g. How are you? I'm fine but I've been really busy, etc. and your reason for writing.• a main body containing the main point(s) of the letter.• a conclusion with closing remarks, e.g. That's all for now. Write back soon.• an informal ending, e.g. Love from/Lots of love/See you soon/Best wishes/Yours + your name or just your name.Each paragraph should have a topic sentence followed by appropriate supporting sentences.Informal letters should be written in an informal style. That is: everyday vocabulary (e.g. It's taken me a while to ...), short forms (e.g. I'd, I've, there's), colloquial expressions/idioms (e.g. / thought I'd drop you a line ...), phrasal verbs (e.g. settle in, getting on). Dear Sarah, 1► Hi! How are you? I've been so worried aboutyou since I got your letter. Thought I'd dropyou a line to help you out. 2► It's great that you've made some new pals,but they don't sound very good company, ifyou ask me. No one has the right to tell youhow you should look and dress! 3► Also, I don't like the idea of you bunking offschool just because your friends think it's cool.Why not tell them that you can meet up afterschool instead? 4► Well, I hope it all works out for you. Writeback and tell me what happens!Lots of love,Katy 43, St Catherine Street Montreal, PQ M3B 2Y7 Canada Dear Pierre, I'm Tony Philips and I'm seventeen years old. I'm a student and I live in Montreal, Canada. I'm tall and slim with short dark hair and brown eyes. There are seven of us in our family; my grandparents, Steve and Sally, my parents, Joe and Kate, my sister, Liz, aged nine, my brother, Leo,aged six, and of course, me. My father is a surgeon. He works at thelocal hospital and my mother is a teacher in a primary school. We live in a big house about twenty minutes from the city centre. In my free time, I love playing computer games and listening torock music. I'm an MTV maniac. My favourite group is Guns'n'Roses.Do you like them? I also like going to the cinema. I go to the cinemaevery Saturday. I don't like going to the theatre, though. Well, that's all about me. Write back and tell meabout yourself. Best wishes, Tony 6 Greenway Road Wethersham 6 May, .... Dear Sarah, I've got some great news. Richard and I are going on holiday for a whole month. Guess where — Hawaii! We're leaving on 1st June. We both love swimming, so we're going to stay at a fabulous hotel right next to the beach. I'm going to relax as much as possiblebecause I'm quite tired after working hard all this year. We're coming back from our holidays on 30th June, and I've got lots of plans for the rest of the summer. First, I'm going to work at a café because I want to earn some extra money and buy a new car. I'm also going to join a gym to lose some weight. Finally, I want to find a better job in autumn, so I'm going to start a computer course. Oh, I nearly forgot! On 16th August we're having a garden party to celebrate Richard's birthday. Please try to come. You're welcome to spend the night here. Well, that's all for now. Hope to see you soon. Love, Jenny Dear Rachel, I was sorry to hear about the disagreement between you and your parents. I think I can give you some advice, though, that may make things better. First of all, you 1) ought to remember that your parents love you very much and will be proud of you whatever you do. They may want you to become a doctor now, but if the y see you succeed in another field they will be satisfied.2) If I were you, I would have a serious talk with them. The best thing you can do is explain to them that, since you are not interested in medicine, you would never be a good doctor. 3) You should also tell them that if you study art, you will have the possibility of teaching or working in advertising as well as doing your own work.4) I hope my advice is of some help to you. I will be waiting to hear how things turn out Remember to think positively! Love, Aunty Rosie 24, Lancaster Terrace, Heath field, W. Sussex 16 January, 1997 Dear John, Just thought I'd drop you a lin to congratulate you on your promotion. Lynda told me about it yesterday, and I can only say how pleased I am — though not surprised. Considering what a hard-working and dedicated policeman you've been, it's only logical that they should decide to promote you to Detective Sergeant.I'm sure your part in solving that series of burglaries had an influence as well. It takes a special talent tosolve a complicated case like that, and obviously youhave it. I hope in your new role you'll have the chanceto prove yourself again and again - not that I hopethere's lots of crime, but you know what I mean. Once more, congratulations. Hopefully we can get together soon and celebrate a bit. Give my love toDelia and the kids, and write soon. Regards, Dave Paragraph Plan for Letters Greeting Introduction: Paragraph 1 reason(s) for writing Main body. Paragraphs 2,3 development of the subject Conclusion: Final paragraph closing remarks nameNote: Friendly letters have only one address (yours) whereas formal letters have two (yours and the recipient's). Friendly letters begin with Dear + name and end with Love, Yours, Best Wishes + name. Formal letters begin with a) Dear Sir/Madam and end with Yours faithfully + full name or b) Dear Mr/Mrs + surname and end with Yours sincerely + full name.The characteristics of informal style in letters are:• the greeting {Dear John, Dear Mum)• informal language and style (idioms, colloquial English)• abbreviated forms, pronouns omitted• the closing remark (Yours, Love, Best Wishes, Regards, Michael) Фразы и выражения, рекомендуемые при написании различных писем личного характераПисьмо с извинениями (Letter of apology)• I'm really sorry that I forgot about ...; I'm writing to apologise for...• I'm so sorry I couldn't make it...• It will never happen again ...Письмо-приглашение (Letter of invitation)• I'm writing to invite you to ...• I'm having a party...; Would you like to come?• / hope you'll be able to join us/to make it.Письмо-просьба (Letter of request)• I'm writing to ask you for your help/to do me a favour.• / wonder/was wondering if I could ask you to ...• I would be so/terribly/really grateful if you could ...Благодарственное письмо (Thank you letter)• I'm writing to thank you so much for...• The party was great/fantastic ...• It was very kind/nice of you to ...Письмо-поздравление (Congratulations letter)• I'm writing to congratulate you on passing your exams ...; Congratulations on ...I• You really were the best...; You deserved...Письмо-информация (Letter of information)• This is just to let you know that...; I'm just writing to tell you that...• You must be wondering what's happened to us all., Here's our news at the moment... Письменное задание с элементами рассужденияArgumentative compositions(for and against) Should cars be banned from city centres?1► Most people would agree that cars have made our lives much easier. They have, however, brought many problems as well. Many people now believe that there should be a total ban on cars from our city centres. Undoubtedly, this suggestion has both advantages and disadvantages.2► There are many positive aspects to banning cars from city centres. To begin with, it would help to drastically reduce air and noise pollution. This is extremely important, especially as the carbon dioxide from car exhausts is seriously harming the environment and our health. In addition, it would probably reduce the number of accidents and generally make the city centre a more pleasant place to be.3► On the other hand, banning cars totally from city centres would have its disadvantages. Firstly, it would inconvenience millions of people. Cars are faster and more comfortable than public transport and do not follow fixed routes. Also, it is likely that public transport would be much more crowded. If cars were not allowed access to all parts of cities then more people would use public transport.4► All things considered, although there are many advantages to using cars in city centres, there is no excuse for people not to use public transport more often than at present. For this reason, I strongly argue that it would be better in the long run if cars were banned from city centres. The Pros and cons of Using the internet1► Advertisements for the Internet promise you a world of information, entertainment, on-line shopping and e-mail services. (1).......................... ,the real world of the Internet may not be as perfect as the advertisements suggest.2►Using the Internet offers many advantages. (2)............................... , all of the latest information is available to you, in your home, at any hour of the day or night. It is muchfaster and easier to surf the net in search of information from all over the world than totravel to libraries in dozens of countries. (3).........., on-line shopping makes it possible to search through catalogues to find exactly what you want at the best price, saving both time and money. By joining a newsgroup or chat group, you can share your hobbies and special interests, and perhaps make friends all over the world. (4).............,e-mail is popular because it is faster than sending a letter and cheaper than a telephoneconversation.3►(5).............................. , the Internet has several disadvantages. (6).........................., with so much information available, finding what you want can take you hours.Multimedia web pages with photographs, music and video are attractive, (7)............... they make downloading slow and boring. (8)........................................, there is toomuch advertising instead of real information. As for Internet friendships, sitting at homein front of a computer making 'chat friends' is not the same as actually meeting people.4► (9)................................. , the Internet obviously has both good and bad points. Fortunately, the system is improving all the time, and any problems which still exist canbe solved. Whether we like it or not, the Internet is here to stay, so we have to make the best possible use of it. The Pros and Cons of Teleworking1 It allows people to work from home using their telephones, modems and computers and communicating with their employer and co-workers through the Internet. Teleworking can make the way we work easier and less stressful, but/in conclusion at the same time, it can cause several problems.2 However/Firstly, it allows employees to work in the relaxed atmosphere of their homes. This means that they can plan their working day in a more productive and convenient way. Also/In conclusion, teleworking is less time-consuming. People do not need to commute to their jobs and, as a result, they have more time to work effectively. For example/ Finally, teleworking can have a positive effect on the environment. If people in large cities work from home and stop using cars and buses, there will betess traffic and therefore less pollution. 3 For example/But, some employees find it difficult to concentrate at home. This problem actually makes their work harder and more stressful. However/What is more, people who work at home may feel lonely at times, because they are not involved in the everyday, life of an office. This can lead to unhappiness and boredom.4 It may have a few disadvantages, but I believe it not only offers people the opportunity to work in a new and original way, but it benefits our environment too. A1 Computers can do certain tasks much faster than people.2 Computers don't make mistakes.3 Computers don't need to be paid for the work they do. In many industries, computers may replace people altogether5 Computers do not have personalities or feelings.BA As a result, employers can reduce their workers' workload and increase their wages.В This could lead to high unemployment.С This means that they can do the time- ' consuming tasks while workers concentrate on other tasks.D This means that they can't judge people's characters or help people with emotional problems.E Therefore they can be used to help workers such as air-traffic controllers or surgeons whose work is dangerous or demanding. PlanINTRODUCTION Para 1: state topicMAIN BODYPara 2: list the Advantages and give reasons Para 3: list the disadvantages and give reasonsCONCLUSIONPara 4: restate the fact that there are both advantages and disadvantages Have you ever considered becoming a .........................? There are many advantages and disadvantages to doing this kind of job. One of the main advantages of being a.....................is that....................................because...................................Furthermore,...........................................................................as ........................ However there are disadvantages to becoming a...............Firstly, ...............................................because................................In addition to this....................................as...............………………………………………........... . All things considered, becoming a....................................is a good idea, as long as you are aware of the drawbacks. •An argumentative composition is always a formal, impersonal piece of writing in which you are expected to consider a topic from opposing points of view and give a balanced consideration or your opinion. Personal expressions such as / believe or / think should only be used in the final paragraph where you can give your opinion.•A good argumentative essay (for/against) should consist of:a) an introduction in which you state the topic.b) a main body which consists of two paragraphs. The points for, with your justification, appear in one paragraph and the points against, with your justification, appear in another paragraph.c) a final paragraph in which you sum up the arguments and give a balanced consideration or your own opinion.Points to remember• Decide on the points for and against the topic before starting your composition.• Never write an argument for or against a topic without supporting it with justifi­cation, e.g. One disadvantage of driving a car is that it creates pollution. This is evi­dent from the poor air quality found in cities where there is a lot of traffic.• Do not use short forms or strong personal expressions.• Each paragraph should start with a sentence (topic sentence) which summarises what the paragraph is about, e.g. There are many advantages to owning a car. To begin with, it allows you..., However, owning a car has a number of disadvantages as well. Firstly, you need to..., etc.• The use of linking words is absolutely necessary when writing an argumentative composition:To introduce points: Firstly/To begin with/In the first place, One point in favour of/against is/One advantage of... is/One disadvantage of... is, etc.To add more points: Secondly/What is more/Furthermore/A further advantage of…... is, etc.To make contrasting points: However/On the other hand/ Although/In spite of, etc.To conclude: To sum up, In conclusion/On balance/All things considered, etc. introduction Paragraph 1state topicMain Body Paragraph 2arguments for & justification *Paragraph 3arguments against & justification*ConclusionFinal Paragraphbalanced consideration/opinionIf you feel that there are more arguments for than against a topic, give those before the final paragraph to lead the reader to a proper conclusion. BEGINNING …1 Did you ever dream of becoming a doctor when you were young? Although it can be a very rewarding career, being a doctor also has its drawbacks.2 Imagine going to school all day long and then having to work as well. Many young people decide to attend school and have a part-time job at the same time. This can have both advantages and disadvantages.3 Cooking is something that few of us have time to do in today's fast-moving world. But does eating out really have as many advantages as people think it does? ... ENDINGSA It is up to each individual to decide whether he or she would Benefit from working and studying at the same time. However, isn't it a pity that many simply have no choice due to poor financial situations?В On balance, the life of a doctor can be both exciting and very demanding. No t everyone is suited for it, especial­ly as it is not a profession with room for mistakes.С All in all, while eating out does have its advantages, it is not something we should make a habit of. Perhaps we should all try to make time in our lives to eat properly. Argumentative – ExpressingOpinion A 3 In addition to this, teenagers who have a job earn their own money and this has several advantages. Parents who are perhaps struggling financially, for example, will no longer need to find pocket money for their son or daughter. Furthermore, when teenagers earn their own money, they are usually more careful when deciding how to spend it. In this way, they learn how to handle money responsibly.B 1 Is it a good idea for teenagers to have part-time jobs while they are still at school? In my view, teenagers who have part-time jobs than just money from their experience. I believe, therefore, that both parents and teachers should encourage teenagers to work part-time.C 5 To conclude, the way I see it, teenagers learn both responsibility and independence through a part-time job. Why not learn some important life lessons at an early age? After all, as they say, "Today's teenagers are tomorrow's adults."D 2 To start with, getting a job teaches young adults early in life how to become reliable individuals and citizens. An employer expects you to do your job well, and when someone depends on you, you feel a sense of responsibility. Moreover, a part-time job can teach valuable skills essential for your future career, such as learning to be on time, handling money and dealing with customers.E 4 On the other hand, some people argue that it's unwise for teenagers to work while still studying. In particular, they fear that having a job can take up too much time and cause a student's school work to suffer seriously. Do dogs make good pets?1►You've decided to add a pet to your family — but what pet is right? I think that the person who said that a dog is "man's best friend" is absolutely right. In my opinion, dogs make perfect house pets.2► First of all, dogs make wonderful companions. They always show their happiness as soon as their owner walks through the door, by wagging their tail and jumping up and down excitedly. They are playful and extremely loyal to their owners, so they are good company for the elderly and for children. 3►Furthermore, trained dogs are useful to their owners. They are easy to train as watchdogs to guard your house and family, making you feel safe and secure. They can also be trained as guide dogs for the blind. They can be taught all sorts of tricks — even to collect the morning newspaper!4► On the other hand, dogs need a lot of attention. They need to be fed and brushed, and taken for their daily walk or regular visit to the vet. However, this is a small price to pay in exchange for their friendship and loyalty.5► All in all, although having a dog can be tiring, I believe that they are the best pets. Spending a little time with your dog every day will certainly win you a "best friend" for life. The way we work will obviously change a lot in the future, but will these changes be for the better or for the worse? 1) To my mind, most of the changes will be for the better. Robots will be doing the most boring jobs, which means that people will be free to use their creative abilities. 2) In contrast, if this happens there will not be enough jobs for everyone to do and, 3) as a result, unemployment will increase. Most people will work at home in the future. This will reduce pollution, 4) because people will not have to drive to work. Unfortunately, those who work at home may feel lonely because they won't be able to socialize very easily. I think that, 5) despite the disadvantages, work in the future will be better because we will have more time to spend with our family and friends. PlanINTRODUCTIONPara 1: How will a child feel when he opens his eyes in the year 2050? I think life will be very different then. MAIN BODYPara 2: state optimistic predictions and reasonsPara 3: state pessimistic predictions and reasons CONCLUSIONPara 4: In conclusion, whatever the future brings, I believe that children's lives will certainly be very different in the year 2050. Compositions expressing opinions are formal in style. Unlike for/against argumentative essays, this type of topic asks for your own opinion, which should be clearly stated and supported by reasons. A good argumentative composition expressing opinion should consist of:a) an introduction in which your opinion is clearly stated,b) a main body which can consist of two or more paragraphs. Each viewpoint, supported by a logical reason, should be presented in a separate para­graph. The opposing viewpoint is mentioned in a new paragraph. In the same paragraph you might include a lead-in opinion to your conclusion.c) a conclusion in which you sum up your viewpoints and re-state your opinion.Points to remember Never start writing your composition before making a plan. Each paragraph should start with a topic sentence which summarises the paragraph. Each viewpoint should be joined to the others with linking or sequence words e.g. in the first place, to start with, what is more, also, furthermore, besides, apart from this, it is argued that, etc.Useful Words and PhrasesTо list viewpoints: Firstly, In the first place, To begin with, Secondly, Thirdly, Finally, etc.Tо add viewpoints: both...and, What is more, not only...but also, In addition, Furthermore, Besides, not to mention the fact that, etc.Tо present the other side of the argument: Contrary to what most people believe, As opposed to the above ideas, Some people argue that... etc.Tо express opinion: I believe, In my opinion, I think, In my view, I strongly believe, I feel that, It seems to me that, etc.IntroductionParagraph 1state topic and your opinion clearlyMaiп BodyParagraph 2 viewpoint 1 and reasonParagraph 3 *viewpoint 2 and reasonParagraph 4give the opposing viewpoint and reasons Conclusionfinal Paragraphrestate your opinion, using different words* you may include more viewpoints, and therefore more paragraphs in the main body BEGINNINGS . . .1 Spending one's summer holiday climbing in the moun­tains of Tibet or white-water rafting may not be everyone's idea of fun, but adventure holidays are becoming extremely popular. They have both their good and bad points.2 Becoming a vegetarian is a choice that many people are making after recent health scares. The question is, does being a vegetarian have a positive or negative effect on one's health? I believe that it can do more harm than good.3 A scene unfolds before one's eyes of yet another miracle of nature: a baby elephant being born. If it were not for television, this is something we might never see and for this reason I feel that TV plays an important role in education. . . . ENDINGSA To sum up, I believe that television should continue to play a role in education. Well-made programmes can give us a broader view of the world and can teach us about things which are outside our everyday experi­ence. B All in all, whether you will enjoy an adventure holiday or not depends on the type of person you are. Taking holidays of this kind should be carefully considered, because they are not for the faint-hearted! C In conclusion, I feel that vegetarians could suffer from health problems if they do not have a healthy, nutri­tious diet. However, everyone must decide for them­selves which lifestyle choice suits them best. The Pros and Cons of Teleworking1 It allows people to work from home using their telephones, modems and computers and communicating with their employer and co-workers through the Internet. Teleworking can make the way we work easier and less stressful, but/in conclusion at the same time, it can cause several problems.2 However/Firstly, it allows employees to work in the relaxed atmosphere of their homes. This means that they can plan their working day in a more productive and convenient way. Also/In conclusion, teleworking is less time-consuming. People do not need to commute to their jobs and, as a result, they have more time to work effectively. For example/ Finally, teleworking can have a positive effect on the environment. If people in large cities work from home and stop using cars and buses, there will betess traffic and therefore less pollution. 3 For example/But, some employees find it difficult to concentrate at home. This problem actually makes their work harder and more stressful. However/What is more, people who work at home may feel lonely at times, because they are not involved in the everyday, life of an office. This can lead to unhappiness and boredom.4 It may have a few disadvantages, but I believe it not only offers people the opportunity to work in a new and original way, but it benefits our environment too.The way we work will obviously change a lot in the future, but will these changes be for the better or for the worse? 1) To my mind, most of the changes will be for the better. Robots will be doing the most boring jobs, which means that people will be free to use their creative abilities. 2) In contrast, if this happens there will not be enough jobs for everyone to do and, 3) as a result, unemployment will increase. Most people will work at home in the future. This will reduce pollution, 4) because people will not have to drive to work. Unfortunately, those who work at home may feel lonely because they won't be able to socialize very easily. I think that, 5) despite the disadvantages, work in the future will be better because we will have more time to spend with our family and friends. Computers: A blessing or a curse? Almost every home, office or school has a computer of some kind these days. Many people feel that these machines are now an essential part of our lives, but how necessary are they really? One of the main advantages is the time that can be saved by using a computer. This is especially beneficial in the workplace, where employees can do their work far faster than they could in the past. In addition to this, computers can be educational and fun. From a very young age, children can gain basic computer skills through programmes that allow them to learn, draw, paint and play. In today's technological world, this knowledge can only help them in the future. However, there are various negative aspects to using com­puters. Many jobs have been lost due to the fact that com­puters can do a lot of tasks more efficiently than humans. This has led to high unemployment in many countries. What is more, computers can actually cause health problems. Endless hours in front of a screen can cause eye strain and headaches, which are serious side-effects. To sum up, it seems that computers are a useful addition to our fast-moving world of high technology. However, it must be remembered that they are here to serve us - not to replace us. Your teacher has asked you to write a composition on the topic "Are computers a necessity?"  Computers play an important role in the lives of most of us today, whether we realise it or not. Some people, however, are beginning to ask if we really need them. In my opinion, computers have become a necessary part of modern life. In the first place, computers can save a lot of storage space. Storing information on computer disks is one of the most efficient ways of keeping data. One computer disk can hold the same amount of information as several books. Furthermore, computers save everyone a lot of valuable time Stored information can be found at the touch of a button, whereas searching for it manually takes much longer. Therefore, our every­day lives are made easier - from going to the bank to doing the shopping. Nevertheless, there are those who claim that computers are unnecessary and make our lives more complicated. They argue that in the past we managed very well using other methods and that we have become too dependent on computers. However, they fail to consider that the time saved by using computers for repetitive tasks enables us to use our own time more creatively and productively. All in all, I strongly believe that computers are a useful tool. They have changed our lives for the better and there is no reason why we should not make them work to our advantage. One of the most controversial issues today is…The majority of people suppose that… Their opponents believe that… Let us consider both points of view. Who is right? On the one hand there are many advantages to… Firstly… Secondly… Thirdly… On the other hand there many disadvantages… To begin with… In addition… Contrary to what other people believe… To sum up… Whether we like it or not… We should make the best use of it… All things considered… The way I see it… Why not start using… After all… Пояснительная записка к презентации «Из опыта работы по подготовке к ЕГЭ по английскому языку в 2011 году» учителя МОУ СОШ 1 п., Новозавидовский Конаковского района Тверской области Горюновой Галины Викторовны (прилагается к презентации, печатается в сокращении)1.Общие сведения о ЕГЭ по иностранным языкам. ЕГЭ по иностранным языкам проводится с 2003 года. Кажется, что уже достаточно времени, чтобы был накоплен необходимый опыт. К сожалению, трудностей по- прежнему много. Нелогично получилось с разделом «Говорение», который был введен, затем изъят, затем планируют вернуть в экзамен снова.Поскольку экзамен по иностранному языку является экзаменом по выбору, у учителя есть возможность заблаговременно сориентировать учащегося по количеству баллов, которое он может получить на экзамене в случае, если ведется планомерная подготовка по всем разделам экзамена.Экзамен по иностранному языку является особенным не только из-за его формы, но и из-за того, что обучение иностранным языкам должно учитывать как российские реалии, так и опыт мировых тенденций обучения иностранным языкам. 2.Учебники и учебные пособия для подготовки к ЕГЭ по английскому языку.При подготовке к экзамену по английскому язык в школе мы использовали учебник Афанасьевой. Эванс Английский в фокусе. К сожалению, мы не имели возможности приобрести полный комплект. Тем не менее, большим преимуществом данного учебника является его построение, где разделы прямо отражают структуру ЕГЭ по английскому языку. Учащиеся получили возможность многократно выполнять задания в формате ЕГЭ. Для электива мы выбрали пособие М.Вербицкой. М.Манна. С.Тейлор Ноулз, где в табличном варианте систематизированы грамматические явления и лексические единицы по темам, устойчивые сочетания, фразовые глаголы, таблицы по словообразованию.В качестве дополнительного материала использовала пособия:Сборник тестов для подготовки к ЕГЭ по английскому языку М.Вербицкой и др.(20тестов)Английский язык. Подготовка к экзаменам. Соловова. Солокова, где можно найти дельные советы по подготовке раздела ГоворениеТак как содержание КИМ для ЕГЭ по иностранным языкам определяется документами (см. слайд), не следует ограничиваться учебниками, вышедшими только в нашей стране. Для более успешного освоения третьих заданий каждого раздела мы обратились к исходным пособиям для подготовки к экзамену, изданным за рубежом (см. слайды17-19). 3.Из опыта подготовки к выполнению письменных заданий.При обучении выполнению письменных заданий я руководствовалась инструкциями и материалами для обучения экспертов. Незаменимыми также считаю пособия «Солововой и др.» и «Манна».В разделе Письмо контролируется умение создавать различные типы письменных текстов. Этот раздел оценивается на основе критериев и схем оценивания выполнения заданий раздела Письмо, а также дополнительных схем оценивания конкретных заданий. Особенностью оценивания заданий C1-C2 Является то, что при получении экзаменуемым 0 баллов по критерию Содержание все задания оцениваются в 0 баллов.Рассмотрим причины не всегда успешного написания такой работы как личное письмо. На мой взгляд, они кроются в отсутствии до определенного момента единых требований и многообразии образцов их написания в учебниках, допущенных и рекомендованных для преподавания в школе. (См. слайды 24-25).Большим достижением явилась информация, появившаяся в книге Солововой, Солоковой, так как авторы обобщили характерные черты личного письма и пропечатали фразы и выражения, рекомендуемые при написании различных писем личного характера. Учебное пособие Английский в фокусе дало довольно большое количество заданий для обеспечения регулярной практики по написанию личных писем.Итак, рекомендации по написанию личного письма могут выглядеть так. (см. слайды).Обучение выполнению письменного задания с элементами рассуждения.Задание предусматривает написание высказывания с элементами рассуждения объемом 200-250слов. В действующих КИМ предлагаются 2 типа заданий: 1) высказать собственное мнение по определенной проблеме.2) высказать аргументы ЗА и ПРОТИВ определенной точки зрения. Учащиеся должны знать, чем эти 2типа сочинений близки и чем они различаются и соответственно строить свой текст.В презентации предлагается большое количество образцов написания письменных заданий - эссе двух типов по разным темам. Предлагаем по ним отследить специфическое оформление эссе. Последний слайд показывает самый общий и простой набор слов-связок для оформления эссе, при правильном применении которого и умении раскрыть тему, сочинение может выглядеть довольно выигрышным.

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