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CRITICAL REALISM IN ENGLAND.CHARLOTTE BRONTE. HER LIFE AND LITERARY WORK. Lecture 20Трякина Светлана Анатольевна,ГОУ СОШ №1232, г. Москва The 19th century was characterized by sharp contradictions. In many ways it was the age of progress: railways and ships were built, great scientific discoveries were made, education became more widespread, but at the same time it was the age of profound social unrest, because there was too much poverty, too much injustice. The growth of scientific inventions mechanized industry and increased wealth, but this progress only enriched the few at the expense of the many. Dirty factories, long hours of work, child labour, exploitation, low wages, slums and frequent unemployment – these were the conditions of life of the workers in the growing industries of England. It became the richest country in the world in the middle of the 19th century. England became a classical capitalist country of industrial capitalism. Hand-looms gave way to factory towns, railroads and steamships. The population of Manchester, Birmingham and other industrial centres was growing rapidly. The number of factory workers increased, while the number of poor farmers decreased and many rural districts were depopulated. The basic social classes in England were no longer the peasants and the landlords but the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. The workers fought for their rights. Their political demands were expressed in the People’s Charter in 1833. The Chartist movement was a revolutionary movement of the English workers, which lasted till 1848. Chartist Literature The Chartists introduced their own literature, which was the first attempt to create the literature of the working class. The Chartist writers tried their hand at different genres. They wrote articles, short stories, songs, epigrams, poems. The ideas of the Chartism attracted the attention of many progressive- minded people of that time. A lot of writers became aware of the social injustices around them and tried to depict them in their works. Thus this period was reflected in literature by the appearance of a new trend, the Critical Realism. The greatest novelists of the age were Charles Dickens, William Makepeace Thackeray, Charlotte Bronte, Elizabeth Gaskell. These writers used the novel as the means to protest against the evils in contemporary social and economic life and to depict the world in a realistic way. Their greatness also lies in their profound humanism. They sympathize with ordinary people. They believed in good qualities of the human heart. Charlotte Bronte.( 1816 – 1855) Charlotte Bronte was an English novelist, a contemporary of Charles Dickens and William Thackeray. She was a daughter of a poor curate. Her mother died when Charlotte was four years old, leaving five daughters and a son. Four of the daughters were sent to a charity school of which Charlotte Bronte gave her recollections in the novel “Jane Eyre”. It was an unfortunate step which hastened the death of Charlotte’s two elder sisters. Then in 1831-1832 Charlotte stayed at another boarding school from which she returned with a teacher’s license. She became later a governess and in 1842 went with her sister Emily to study French at a school in Brussels, where she was employed as a teacher of English. She came back home with a volume of verse, mostly lyrical and philosophical. The book appeared under the title of “Poems by Currer, Allis and Action Bell” (the pen-names of Charlotte, Emily and Ann Bronte). All the sisters lived in a world created by their own imagination. Charlotte’s first novel, “The Professor”, was refused by several publishers and appeared only in 1857 after her death. Her second novel “Jane Eyre” was published in 1847 and was a great success. But fresh sorrows descended on the writer : in 1848 her brother and two sisters died one after another and she alone of the six children survived. In spite of her grief she went on writing and produced two more novels. Her last work “Emma” was published after her death. Charlotte married in 1854 but a year later she died of tuberculosis at the age of 39. The book “Jane Eyre” is a social novel. The writer exposes the vices of cruel, hypocritical bourgeois- aristocratic society. Besides, she raises the problems of education. She also demands that women should possess equal rights with men in family life. The novel is partly autobiographical; the author describes the green years of her life. Источники: Волосова Т.Д., Геккер М.Ю., Дорошевич А.“English Literature”,ч.2, изд-во «Просвещение», М.,1975г.Иллюстрации:http://banzaiek.info/industrial-revolution-inventions-stem-engine&page=6http://drangrahovac.fastpage.name/firearmsand-thetheirindustrialrevolutionhttp://gerald-massey.org.uk/holyoake/c_bygones_o1.htmhttp://moreintelligentlife.com/blog/yael-friedman/christmas-timelessness-dickenshttp://www.peoples.ru/art/literature/prose/roman/william_makepeace_thackeray/http://atv.odess.ua/?t=list&search=писатель&SType=tag&Pos=2&Pos.Start=0http:// forum.pocket-video.com.ua/index.php?showtopic=30152http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/ruwiki/1382475http://fatalsecret.ucoz.ru/index/ehmili/dzejn_bronte/0-16+http://fatalsecret.ucoz.ru/index/0-13http://www.filmelita.com/forum/topic_882http://www.file_klondike.ru/catalog/year/2/1983http://xfilepress.com/privychki-velikih.aspx