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THE BOURGEOIS ( PURITAN) REVOLUTIONAND THE ENGLISH LITERATURE OF THE 17TH CENTURY Lecture 12Трякина Светлана Анатольевна,ГОУ СОШ №1232, г. Москва THE B The 17th century is a period, during which England had her own course both in her political and literary life. After Queen Elizabeth’s death James VI of Scotland became King James I of England in 1603. Like Elizabeth, he tried to rule without Parliament as much as possible. He believed in the divine right of kings. He expressed his opinion openly and that led to trouble with Parliament. In 1618 the Thirty Years War began, and Parliament wished to go to war against Catholics. James I did not agree. Until his death in 1625 he was always quarrelling with Parliament over money and over his desire to play a part in his foreign policy. His son, Charles I, quarrelled with the House of Commons even more than his father. It was also over money. Finally Charles I dissolved Parliament. After that he had to recall Parliament, because he needed money, but each time he did so, he quarrelled with it. Besides, Charles I disliked Puritans, who wanted a democratic Church. Many members of Parliament were either Puritans or sympathized with them. Puritans were serious Christian believers, who wanted to purify their religion of the formal ceremonies of the Church of England. They condemned singing, dancing, going to the theatre, all popular amusements and pastimes. The CivilWar between Charles I and his supporters ( the Cavaliers) and the Parliament forces ( the Rounheads) began in 1642. Victory went to Parliament at the end. Charles I was executed in 1649. Oliver Cromwell, a military leader, became a dictator, calling himself the Protector. From 1649 to 1660 Britain was a republic. When Cromwell died in 1658, the Protectorate collapsed. Richard Cromwell, his son, was not a good leader. In 1660 Charles II was invited to return from France, where he had escaped after his father’s execution. The republic was over, the monarchy was restored. The Restoration of Monarchy brought about many changes. France was a great power at that time, so French influence in manners, literature and arts was now irresistible. What was fashionable in Paris, soon became fashionable in London. At that time two great disasters happened in Great Britain: the Plague and the Great Fire of London. The Great Fire of London devastated the old city. However, it was rebuilt under the direction of the famous architect Sir Christopher Wren. Literary forms were quick to change and develop during the 17th century. Prose writing offers us a particularly good example of this change and development. It moved in two different directions. The earliest development, which can be found in John Milton’s prose, gives us writing of increasing complexity. His prose is quite unlike ordinary speech. The later development ( the last twenty years of the century) is quite different: it begins to reproduce the manner and rhythm of the best talk of the time ( John Dryden ). John Milton (1608 -1674) John Dryden (1631 -1700) John Milton is considered to be the most outstanding writer of the 17th century. He is a representative of English Puritanism in English literature. He was brought up in the family where the culture of the Renaissance was combined with the life of the Puritans. Following his mother’s will John Milton was preparing for the religious career, and at the age of 16 he went to Cambridge. His life seems to have revolted around three great decisions. At the University he gave up the idea of taking orders in the Anglican Church. However, he always remained religious, and poetry was a sacred calling for him.In 1640s Milton was forced to take a second decision – his role in the Civil War. He joined the Puritans in Parliament and began to write pamphlets on the Church reform. He also became Oliver Cromwell’s Latin secretary.He took his third decision when he was faced with the threat of blindness. If he had given up his political work, he would not have lost his eyesight. But the call of duty was powerful. At the age 0f 44 John Milton went completely blind.During the last 10 years of his life Milton completed his great long poems:”Paradise Lost” and “Paradise Regained”. He often dictated them to his daughters.The poem “Paradise Lost” (1658, published in 1667) is the most famous of his poems. It tells in 12 books the Biblical story of the temptation and fall of Man in the hands of Satan. The poetry of the 17 th century shows an astonishing variety. John Donne (1572 -1631) was the greatest metaphysical poet. He was brought up as a Roman Catholic but later joined the Church of England and became Dean of St Paul’s Cathedral. His sermons were very popular, but he had a great influence as a poet. He glorified inconstancy and explored the dark paths of the mind. The lighter side of literature is reflected in the lyrics of the Cavalier poets. They sing of love, youth, happiness, they like life as they find it – often with a mocking spirit. Richard Lovelace ( 1618 -1658) was one of them. He was a handsome and gallant gentleman. He spent his fortune and much of his time in prison for the King. While there, he composed a number of exquisite lyrics. Источники: Кукурян И.Л., “An Outline of English Literature”,М., изд-во МГУ, 1997г.David McDowall, “An Illustrated History of Britain,” изд-во “Longman”,1995.Иллюстрации:http://www.forgive490.com/bible/whatis.htmlhttp://getsword.com/blog/688-european-cavalry-pictures/ruroto.euhttp:// www.enotes.com/topic/Oliver_Cromwellhttp://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/walker/collections/brief_enc/encounters2aspxhttp://www.yennayer.fr/spip.php?article905http:netcool.wordpress.com/2007/08/26/murder-inc/http:burdelov.narod.ru/Win.Milton.htmlhttp:www.etointeresno.com/zhzl/istorii/345-2011-02-15-20-41-03http://www.stihi.ru/2011/07/04/3663http:www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/richard-lovelace