Тема: Modal verbs
Цели:1. Образовательные- обобщить все раннее полученные знания о модальных глаголах и их эквивалентах в английском языке2. Развивающие- познакомится с новыми значениями модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов, а также с самыми распространенными устойчивыми выражениями с модальными глаголами в английском языке.
Задачи урока:- организовать устное повторение хорошо известных модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов- организовать на основе известного грамматического материала письменное обобщение в виде таблицы- организовать устную первичную отработку данного грамматического материала с опорой на составленную учащимися таблицу значений и эквивалентов модальных глаголов английского языка.
Today we are having a grammar lesson. It will be devoted to modal verbs in the English language.
Let’s begin our lesson with the revision of the modal verb that you know well and use every day at our lessons.
Students name the modal verb with the most common examples:
- May I come in? / May I go out?- Can I ask you a question?- Must we do this exercise now?- Etc.
2. Основная часть
Let us think! What modal meanings we express when we use these modal verbs?
(учащиеся догадываются о модальных значениях перечисленных модальных глаголов из ситуаций, в которых они используются, и называют значения способности, возможности, обязательности или вероятности в зависимости от приведенного примера).
Modal verbs do not denote actions or states, but only show the attitude of the speaker towards the action expressed by the infinitive.
There are twelve modal verbs in English. They are can (could), may (might), must (to be to, to have to), should, ought to, shall, will (would), need, dare.
Modal verb and its equivalent Modal meaningsExamplesCan CouldTo be able to 1. physical or mental ability2. possibility3. permission4. prohibition (in negative sentences = нельзя, ненадо)5. strong doubt6. reproach or surprise (with perfect infinitive) 1. I can skate. Soon he will be able to speak English quite fluently.2. Everybody can make a mistake. The railways could be improved. The sea can be rough.3. You can go now!Can I ask you a question?4. You cannot do that!5. He can’t be working at this time!6. You could have told me about it!
You can’t have spent all the money, I’ve given you a lot!
Collocations with can:I can’t help laughing.We cannot but hope he is right.Onecannotbutwonder.
May MightTo be allowed to 1. permission2. possibility3. prohibition(in negative sentences = несмей!!!)4. uncertainty5. reproachoruncertainty (withperfectinfinitive) 1. May I go out? Might I interfere?(might is more polite)2. You may find all these books in our library.3. You may not touch this!4. He might be at home, but I am not sure.5. You might have helped me.They might have gone on holiday.
Must To be toTo have to 1. obligation or necessity2. prohibition(in negative sentences)3. near certainty(a past action with the perfect infinitive) 1. You must do your home work!You were toread this book. What am I to do?What is to become of me?Where am I to go?(necessity or obligation arising out of an arrangement or plan)Will I have to go there alone?(obligation or necessity arising out of circumstances)2. You must not cross the street here!(=Нельзя!)3. She must be packing for the trip now.They must have gone home by now.
Need1. necessity (in questions and negative sentences)2. absence of necessity (in negative sentences) 1. Need we do the exercises now?2. You need not have brought your friend here! ( with perfect infinitive – зря, незачем было)
ShouldOught to1. moral duty or obligation 2. advice3. reproach or criticism( with perfect infinitive) 1. You should be careful talking to him. (следует)2. You ought to see a doctor.3. You should have stayed a thome!
Shall1. promise, oath or strong intention2. threat or warning3. a suggestion or offer 1. It shall be done as you wish.2. That day shall come.3. Shall we begin?
And now let us practice what we have just learned.
I. Give the modal meaning of the verbs:
He can not speak German.
He might be in his office.
You may go home now.
Could you show me the way to the supermarket?
You ought to take more exercise.
She should not have told you that.
You don’t have to apologize.
I could not find my socks.
She must have left her bag on the train.
You need not buy any bread, we have got plenty.
We can go to the beach if you like.
You should consult with the doctor.
You must not make any noise.
You may retake the exam later.
You must have any form of identification.
II.Change the following sentences using the equivalents of the modal verbs and the Past or Future Simple Tense:
You must practice you reading every day.
She can translate this article without a dictionary.
The doctor must examine the child.
I may stay out late at weekends.
He can’t join the party, he is busy.
We must be there at five o’clock.
You can’t take the dog to the shop.
III.Rephrase the following situations using an appropriate modal verb as in the example:
Example: It is not possible that he has finished already. He can’t have finished already.
It was not necessary for you to give him a present.
I advise you to stop eating chocolate.
I insist on you doing your homework.
It was wrong of him to kick this dog.
It is possible that she has already phoned him.
I will take the dog out if you like.
Will you let me speak to John, please?
It is possible that he is lying.
He was not able to write until he was eight.
Talking is not permitted during the test.
It would be a good idea for you to give up smoking.
I am sure that she has gone home.
It isn’t right to speak to your mother like that.
It is not possible for me to come to the party tonight.
He is obliged to go to the police station twice a week.
It is not possible that you have spent all the money. I’ve given you a lot.
I advise you to consult the doctor.
Students are not permitted to leave the classroom.
Dogs are prohibited here.
Were you able to speak Spanish last year?