МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ
ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ «СРЕДНЯЯ ШКОЛА № 10 Г. ВИТЕБСКА»
RUSSIAN, BELARUSIAN AND ENGLISH PROVERBS AND SAYINGS
учащаяся 9 «А» класса
Ревзина-Титова Александра Геннадьевна,
учитель английского языка
Chapter1. English, Belarusian and Russian proverbs and sayings as a genre of oral folklore
1.1 What are proverbs and sayings? .................................................................................5
1.2 The task of proverbs and sayings……………….......................................................6
1.3 The difficulties of turning of proverbs and sayings from English to Belarusian and Russian. The features of foreign culture in proverbs......... ............................................7
Chapter2. English, Belarusian and Russian proverbs containing names of animals
2.1 Classification of English proverbs and sayings versus Russian and Belarusian equivalents ..................................................................................................................9
2.2 Similarities and differences between the Russian, Belarusian and English proverbs....................................................…………………….........................................10
This work is devoted to similarities and differences between the Belarusian, Russian and English proverbs and sayings. The reason of the topic choice is the desire to acquainte with the national cultures of the Belarusian-, Russian -, and English-speaking countries, to understand how we are similar or, on the contrary, how we are different, and also to reveal the peculiarities of the putting of English proverbs and sayings in Belarusian and Russian. There is a problem that Russian, Belarusian and English proverbs and sayings have many similarities, but also have many differences, which in turn assumes the search of those cultural values, which are reflected in English versions and the native language version. From the scientific point of view, the actuality of this work lies in the fact that, English, Belarusian and Russian have much in common and it bring people together. From the social point of view, the work is import because of while the person is learning the language of proverbs he understands the culture of its people and forms his own spirituality. Common characteristics of proverbs and sayings talk about the same traditions in the English and Russian cultures. The personal significance of the work lays in the fact that investigating language of proverbs and sayings you improve your linguistic competence, learn the culture of people. Educational research is implemented in the framework of the subject of literature and English.
The object of the research: the image of animals in proverbs and sayings.
The subject of the research: similarities and differences between the English, Belarusian and Russian proverbs and sayings.
The hypothesis of the research: if you examine the different and common features of proverbs and sayings in Belarusian, Russian and English, it will help you to understand the realities of the language better (as the mother tongue, as the foreign) and to understand better the English humour.
The aim of the research: to compare and identify the similarities and differences between the English, Belarusian and Russian proverbs, sayings.
The tasks of the research:
1. The analysis the figurativeness connected with different animals in English proverbs and compare it with Belarusian and Russian proverbs, containing the names of animals;
2. To hold the quantity analysis of frequency of different animals mentions in English proverbs and its Russian and Belarusian analogues;
The stages of the research:
1. The selection of English, Belarusian and Russian proverbs, containing the names of animals;
2. The search of the compliance of translation in Belarusian, Russian and English;
3. Classification of the material received from the point of view of the translation in accordance with language proximity;
4. Analysis of the frequency of the names of different animals mentions in English, Belarusian and Russian proverbs;
5. The figurativeness analysis related to animals used in English, Belarusian and Russian proverbs.
The following methods were used in the research:
1. The analysis and the synthesis of the data received in the result of research;
2. The Comparison of the Belarusian, Russian and English proverbs and sayings;
3. The generalization of theoretical material and practical study of Belarusian, Russian and English proverbs and sayings.
The practical significance of the work lies in the fact that it can be used as a textbook for the study of proverbs and sayings in English, Belarusian, and Russian.
This kind activity allows to expand your word vocabulary in easy way - without cramming to remembers some grammatical phenomenon, to develop spoken language.
Chapter1. English, Belarusian and Russian proverbs and sayings as a genre of oral folklore
What are proverbs and sayings?
Proverb [lat. — proverbium] is a genre of folklore, aphoristically concise, imaginative, logical and grammatically complete utterance with instructive sense in rhythmically organized form. Что посеешь, то и пожнешь, Пословица к слову молвится[1,с.113]. Proverbs and sayings are well-aimed, accurate expressions, created by the people, translated from ancient sources, or borrowed from literary works. We also need to distinguish the proverb from the saying which approaches to idiom, to the frequent speech expression and does not have instructive, didactic sense in its nature [2,с.45].The saying is a figurative expression, a figure of speech, which defines exactly any aspect of life. Семь пятниц на неделе, Положить зубы на полку [3;1015].The primary sources of the Paremiography originate from ancient times. Aristotle was ascribed the first records of Proverbs. Records of the proverbs were studied by Greek, Alexandrian and Roman scientists [2;76].
The rich historical experience of the people, the cultural ideas are reflected in the proverbs and sayings. Correct and appropriate use of proverbs and sayings in speech gives a unique originality and expressiveness. What magnificence of these short sayings nor was, their power was ahead – it was in the middle of a conversation, when it was necessary to reinforce it with well-aimed remark, observation, conclusion, to identify the essence of what has been said. So, about indecisive, doubting, groom who has not still decided it was said: Молодец жениться, а во сне ему бредится: не платить бы попятного. About the jealous person it was said: В чужих руках пирог (или: ломоть) велик. The proverb is similar to direct judgment: Не зарься на чужое! The original idea is the same, only in the first case it is implied and the second is expressed as an instruction. Proverbs are valued for their original life position.The most ancient works which contain the Proverbs are dated to the XIIth century. They can be found in such works as "the Word about Igor's regiment"(«Слово о полку Игореве»), "the praying of Daniel Incarcerated” («Молении Даниила Заточника»), etc., [2; 78].Proverbs and sayings carry the accumulated experience of generations and also adorn our speech and make it more expressive.
The task of proverbs and sayings
Proverbs and sayings, as an integral attribute of national folklore, an attribute of culture of the people, carry a reflection of nation life to which they belong, it is a way of thinking and the people character.
Proverbs and sayings are diverse; they are out of temporary space. Truly, in whatever time we live, proverbs and sayings will always be relevant, always corresponding to the situation. Proverbs and the steady expressions are different linguistic phenomenon. When we use an idiom, we can include it in any proposal or statement to combine with a neutral vocabulary. When using proverbs and sayings we are more limited.
Each proverb has its own task. Proverbs:
1. Warn: If you sing before breakfast, you will cry before night.- Ад ляноты чакай бядоты. - Ты все пела – это дело, так пойди же попляши;
2. Sums up people's experience: Hell is paved with good in tensions. - Хацелі як лепш, а атрымалася як заўседы. - Благими намерениями вымощена дорога в ад;
3. Ridicule: Everyone calls his own geese swans. - Кожная жаба свае балота хвалиць (Кожная зязюлька пра свае кувае). - Всяк кулик своё болото хвалит.
4. Comment on appearance: You look like a cat after it has eaten a canary. - Ты светишься довольством.5. Give advice: Do not trouble till trouble troubles you. - Сядзі ціха – не будзеш ведаць ліха . – Не буди лихо, пока оно тихо.6. Teach wisdom: Who chatters to you, will chatter of you. - Кто сплетничает с вами, тот будет судачить, и сплетничать и о вас.
7.Philosophize: Liars should have good memories. - Лжецам нужна хорошая память.Translation of proverbs and sayings from English into Belarusian and Russian languages. Features of the foreign culture in proverbs
The centuries of experience of people speaking and writing in different languages testify that a good translator must not only understand the meaning of the translated text, but also have the phraseological richness of the language that is being translated.The English language has its own word order, while Russian and Belarusian have the other. In English the phrase can’t ever have two negatives, and in Russian we sometimes use them twice: "never", "no". The English phrase literally would sound like this: "In the English phrase can never ever have two negations". Russian language is flexible, and it allows you to keep the English word order in the phrase, but not always. The English phrase "He was not ready" literally translates as «он был не готов». This order of the words is jarring, and we change it to «Он не был готов» («Ен быў не гатовы»). The difficulties of translation of English proverbs and sayings arose and always arise. And, considering all the language featured, It is very difficult to translate what is the part of the culture of one nation into another language. For example, the English proverb The pot calls the kettle black (1). The Literal translation of this proverb is: Горшок обзывает этот чайник чёрным (2). If for the English the meaning of the proverb is clear, for the Russian this proverb seems to be something new, so the meaning is not always fully disclosed. So in order to the Russian understand what you want to say by saying the British have to look for a Russian equivalent: Чья бы корова мычала, а твоя помолчала (3). This option is clearer and closer to the Russian. But if we translate it (3) into English, we will get the following: Anyone’s cow may moo, but yours should keep quite (4). For Belarusians that variant is closer: Паглядзі, сава, якая сама/ Не вучы гулькаць, і так ногі баляць.As you can see, the original version (1) is far from the end (4). For example, saying The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence. The literal translation of this proverb goes like this: Трава всегда зеленее по ту сторону забора. But in the Russian language this proverb sounds like: Хорошо там, где нас нет. In principle, these two proverbs are the equivalents in meaning. But the literal translation of the Russian proverb would be: Life is better, where we are not present. Belarusian variant has the similar semantic meaning: Там вороты пирагом падперты.Let’s take the Russian expression «когда рак на горе свистнет», which is used to express the impossibility of any action. English equivalent of this saying has two expressions: “When pigs fly”, and “to wait till the cows come home”. Belarusian equivalent of this saying – «як воўк брахаць хвастом будзе»; «як на далоні валасы парастуць»; «як будзе баба дзеўкаю» ; «хутчэй бусел жарабя ўродзіць»; «тады, хіба, перастане, як сарока бела стане». All the examples of the Belarusian Proverbs indicate the event whose probability is practically equal to zero, i.e., the event that is just as real as the hair will grow on the palm, or magpie will be white.(Event will never come true).
Pay attention to Russian and English. It is clear that crayfish can't whistle, but why crayfich, and why on a mountain? We can't give a clear answer. It seems that there is much more logical expression in the English language. In my opinion, it was impossible to choose a heavier and clumsy animal than the pig: it will never be able to fly (even a flying cow found in Russian folklore more realistic than pigs with wings).
Thus, the English rational mind found nothing better than to combine these seemingly incompatible things - a flight and overweight pig. If we tried to translate our saying for English friends, the answer would have been most likely, misunderstanding look. Even it is more logical to think the equivalent “to wait till the cows come home”. During the creation of this proverb the life of the common Englishman was directly associated with the farming.Rational people did not worry about invention of difficult expressions to the potent phrase, and took the simple and clear words - no one doubted that the cow would not have gone home (unless this is a circus cow, or if it has no overcow's abilities), and therefore it is useless to sit and wait, when it finally knocks a hoof on the door.
Chapter 2. English and Russian proverbs, containing the names of animals
2.1 Classification of English proverbs and sayings in relation to Russian and Belarusian equivalents
Many proverbs and sayings are easily translated into Russian and Belarusian language: take the bull by horns - взять быка за рога – узяць быка за рогі; there is no smoke without fire - нет дыма без огня – няма дыму без агню; appetite comes with eating - аппетит приходит во время еды – апетыт прыходзіць падчас ежы [3, с.89]. The literal translation coincides with the Russian proverb. Others require the explanation, because, on the contrary, they have nothing in common with our Russian expressions, although you can sometimes guess what the British want to say. As you can see, proverbs and sayings can be divided into the following categories:
1. English proverbs and sayings, which is fully translated in the same way into Belarusian and Russian, i.e. the English version fully corresponds to the Belarusian and Russian;
2. English proverbs and sayings that are partially translated to the Belarusian and Russian language in the same way (English version scarcely differ from the Belarusian and Russian);
3. English proverbs and sayings that totally differ into Belarusian and Russian language, (English version does not correspond to the Belarusian and Russian).
We were investigated 166 proverbs and made the following correlation between English, Belarusian and Russian proverbs :
1. The English version is the same like in Russian and Belarusian -32proverbs;
2. The English version scarcely differ from Russian and Belarusian - 44 proverbs;
3. The English version does not correspond to Russian and Belarus - 90 proverbs.
(See Appendix).It should be noted that there are phrases and expressions that cannot be taken literally, even if you know the meaning of each word and grammatical structure is clear in every language. The meaning of this phrase is unclear and strange. Attempts of literal translation of proverbs and sayings may lead to an unexpected, often silly result.
2.2 Similarities and differences between the Belarusian, Russian and English proverbs and sayings
After studying 166 proverbs, I conducted a quantitative analysis of the frequency of mention of the names of different animals in English, Belarusian and Russian proverbs.Among the animals in the three languages most frequently it is mentioned the dog, the horse (horse), fish and a cat (which is probably due to the common historical development with the mankind).
The Russian proverbs prefer forest animals. It means that for a Russian hunting is more important than for an Englishman. As a result, there is the opposition of "hare - wolf" in Russian proverbs, which is absent in the English proverb.In the Belarusian proverbs images of birds are used more. Birds – there are flying in the air creations presented in popular culture as a team, or individually. The opposition “clean – unclean” is revealed more expressive in birds, than in other animals, it takes almost all the birds, and coincides with the opposition "harmless - predatory."The English proverb often used domestic animals living in close to a native speaker, it is particularly common construction "cat - mouse". The animal world has always played an important role in life, like the English people, and Russian. The English are known worldwide as «pet-lovers». Naturally, many of the proverbs are related to animals.Comparative analysis of the imagery of animals shows that in English proverbs and sayings component "dog (dog)" is represented more frequently than in Russian. Although images of the pet in the English and Russian proverbs and sayings are similar, they do not fully coincide.
The proverbs and sayings of three languages associate the dog image with a hidden danger. Wed.: Be ware of a silent dog and still water; Dumb dogs are dangerous; Не буди спящего пса: пес спит, а ты мимо; Не ступай собака на волчий след: оглянется – съест;І сабаку шаленаму не зычу такога (И врагу не пожелаею), and others.
In both traditions dog associated with old age, but if Russian proverbs are characterized with a positive connotation: Стар пес, да верно служит, that the English and Belarusian are with negative: An old dog will earn no new tricks; Таннае мяса сабакі ядуць; Паслалі сабаку па табаку- ані табакі, ані сабакі.And in English, and in Russian, and in Belarusian proverbs and sayings the image of a cat is characterized by unruly: Send not the cat for lard; The cats huts her eyes while it steal scream; Чует кошка, чье мясо съела. The Russian and Belarusian proverbs note the need to put the end to mischiefs: Не все коту масленица, будет и великий пост; Ведай, каток, свій куток. In the proverbs and sayings of three languages the image considered is contrasted to the images of mice and dogs: When the cat's away, the mice will play; Agree like cats and dogs; Отольются кошке Мышкины слезы; Жить как кошка с собакой; Пашыў: на сабаку мала, на ката вяліка Кошцы гулі, а мышцы слезы. This image is also associated with sham: Cats hide their claws; The cat sleeps, the mice and see; Кошка спит, а мышей видит; Важдаецца як кот са здохлай мышшу; На тае і каты, каб мышы лататы.Other features associated with this pet in English, Belarusian and Russian proverbs and sayings, are not the same. For example, in English proverbs and sayings cat is associated with vitality: A cat has nine lives; and in the Belarusian and Russian - to harmfulness and naughtiness: Два каты на адным сале не тоўпяцца; Влез кот на сало и кричит: «Мало»!
Proverbs and sayings connected to the "sheep" component are not so many. As a rule, in the three languages the sheep is associated with wickedness, laziness and a sense of the herd: A lazy sheep think sits wool heavy; If one sheep leaps over the ditch, all the rest will follow; Одна паршивая овца все стадо портит; Без пастуха овцы не стадо. The Belarusian language the image of goat or ram is more frequent than the sheep image: І козы сытыя, і сена целыя; Праз аднаго барана ўвесь статак паганы.Also in the three traditions There is the contrast of thr sheep and the wolf, and the image of a pet is associated with helplessness: Alone sheep is in danger of the wolf; Упартая каза — ваўку на нажыву; Не ставь неприятеля овцой, ставь его волком.Proverbs and sayings with the component "pig" are less frequent, but it should be noted that the image of the pet in Russian, Belarusian and English is virtually identical and carries a negative assessment: a pig is usually associated with sloppy, ignorant and unworthy of man: Cast pearls before swine; Метать бисер перед свиньями; Посадишь свинью за стол, она и ноги на стол; Ціхая свіння глыбока рые (в тихом омуте черти водятся); Прыбяры свшнню хоць у золата ўсе роўна ў хлеў пойдзе..
However, there are differences. In Russian proverbs and sayings that image is also associated with stupidity and insolence: У богатого гумна и свинья умна; Свинья только рыло просунет, и вся пролезет. In English proverbs and sayings with the help of this component the necessity of thoroughly testing the animal before buying it is interpreted: Never buy a pig in a poke. The image of the pet can also be used for the transmission of the impossibility of any action, for example, when pigs fly; or unusual reality, for example, Pigs might fly if they had wings.
The comparative analysis shows that in the Russian and Belarusian proverbs image "chicken" is more common than in English. The Russian and Belarusian proverbs and sayings associate image of chicken with hunger: Голодной курице все просо снится; foolishness: Умница – как попова курица; harmfulness: Дай курице гряду – изроет весь огород; Скажы адной курыцы, а яна ўсей вулицы; unpretentiousness: В марте курица из лужицы напьется. The Russian proverbs and sayings also associate it with poverty: Ни кола, ни двора, ни куриного пера.
The only match in the English and Russian images of the ret is that it can interpret the relationship between parents and children: Even one chick makes a hen busy; A black hen lays a white egg; Яйца курицу не учат.
In ancient times, the British associated chicken with a lot of rites of transition and the underworld; it was a symbol of wealth and prosperity in the family. In English proverbs and sayings its image is associated with the desired and available: Better an egg today than a hen tomorrow; and the necessity to make efforts in order to get the result: He that would have eggs must endure the cackling of hens. Similar value is visible in the Belarusian proverbs and sayings: І куры не шэпчуць (не пяюць); Каб цябе куры затапталі.
Component "cow" is found in the Belarusian, Russian and English proverbs and sayings. In addition, it is not the same in English and Slavic traditions.
The Russian proverbs and sayings are associated with the image of cow harmfulness and malice: Безрогая корова хоть шишкой, да боднет; Бодливой корове бог рог не дает. Nevertheless, the importance of this pet is not in question: Была бы корова, найдем и подойник. The Russian proverbs and sayings are associated this image also with poverty: Привыкает корова и ко ржаной соломе. The Belarusian cow image - as the inability to do anything: У каровы зімой малака купі. It says that the cow was significant in the economy.In English proverbs and sayings this pet is associated with old age, pliancy and necessity: The old cow thinks she was never a calf; If you agree to carry a calf, they will make you to carry the cow. As a rule, English proverbs and sayings cow is opposed calf: A good cow may have an evil calf.Proverbs and sayings with the component "cock" are rare. Proverbs of three languages are characterized with the image of cock as a quarrelsome creature, bully: It will be a forward cock that crows in the shell; That cock won’t fight; Из молодых, да ранний петухом кричит; Няма куды пеўню дзюбнуць. Historically, this has been motivated in different ways. Russian farmers have seen this feature in the process of breeding, while in the English tradition, it is connected with popular cockfighting as a form of entertainment.The proverbs and sayings of three languages focusing on cock singing, as one of its main characteristics: As the old cock crows, so does the young; Поп да петух не евши поют; У дурнога пеўня дурная песня. It also should be noted that this image is universal, used in the different situations. Thus, in the Russian proverbs it can be associated with good fortune and pride: Кому повезет, у того и петух несется; Гордый петух стареет облезлым. In English proverbs and sayings through the image it is interpreted the fatalism and foolish courage: Let the cock crow or not, the day will come; A cock is bold on his own dunhill.In a vast majority of the proverbs they were created by the people, so they are related to the interests and connected with everyday life of ordinary people. Proverb has humor and worldly wisdom and shrewd sensible meaning.Judging by the proverbs, the people of England is more practical, as Slavs, often complicate the interpretation of proverbs, make them more imaginative and effective. It is interesting that the horse is in proverbs - "internationalist" animal: by frequency of use, it occupies the same place in Russian and English proverbs. This fact can be explained with the fact that it has been used in agriculture, and as a vehicle away from home, as well as hunting. For example the English proverb: All lay loads on a willing horse. On diligent horse everybody saddle all loads. Moreover, the use of animals in British is more efficiently if it is a bird, the bird simply, if it is the fish, the fish - and all. Belarusian and Russian people also tends to make a figurative saying, saturated, even with damage to its simplicity: not a bird - a sparrow, crow, nightingale; not a fish – pike (though in the fish names in proverbs Russians are not so creative).For example the English proverb: A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. Better a bird in hand is worth two in the bush (the literal translation)[1,с.94] . Не сули журавля в небе, а дай синицу в руки (Russian proverb) or Лучше синица в руках, чем журавль в небе. Also, the Belarusian: Лепш варабей у руцэ, чым голуб на страсе; Ластаўка вясну пачынае, а салавей канчае.
It has been observed long ago that the wisdom and the spirit of the people appear in its proverbs and sayings, and knowledge of proverbs and sayings of people does not promote only better knowledge of the language, but also and better understanding of the nature and mindset of the people.
Comparison of proverbs and sayings of different nations shows how much these people have in common, which, in turn, contributes to their better understanding and rapprochement. In proverbs and sayings there are reflected the rich historical experience of the people, ideas, connected with lifestyle and culture of people. The correct and appropriate use of proverbs gives to speech unique identity and special expressiveness.
Thus, the work done allows drawing conclusions about the figurativeness associated with the animals, as well as the frequency of their appearance in the English proverbs and their Russian and Belarusian equivalents.
First, focus on the general terms:
As in English, Belarusian and Russian languages the important place is occupied with the proverb mentioning pets (it is naturally, because of being of co-existence between people and animals for thousands of years).
Among the animals in the three languages most frequently the dog, the horse (horse), cat are mentioned (what is probably due to the common historical development of mankind).
Among the differences, you can also note the following:
Not all the images of animals carry the same emotional meaning in proverbs. So, if the chicken is mentioned among the "positive leader" in the English proverb, the Russian and Belarusian proverbs it carries the "negative image".
The overall positive image in both languages the horse has got.
Judging by the proverbs, the people of England is more practical, as Slavs, often complicating the interpretation of proverbs, make them more imaginative and effective.
Thus, proverbs appear as a book of thoughts of the people, after reading that, you learn in just degree the national character.
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Электронный словарь «Lingwo 9.0», [Электронный ресурс]
http:webprogram.narod.ru\proverb\ - English proverb –Английские пословицы с русским переводом.
http://saying.ru\world\english-English proverb and saying with the transfer in the Russian.
http://english-proverbs –Английские пословицы и поговорки
1.You cannot eat your cake and have it. - Нельзя одновременно съесть лепешку и иметь ее (дословный перевод) - Один пирог два раза не съешь (русская пословица).
Пословица в ситуации: Make a choice. You mustn't have two things. You must have one or the other, not both. Do you know the English proverb: «You cannot eat your cake and have it».2. Custom is a second nature. - Привычка - вторая натура. (В данном случае дословный перевод совпадает с русской пословицей).
Пословица в ситуации: A young woman wants her mother to move to town and live with her and her family. “If you live in town a bit longer, I'm sure you'll like it.” “No, I'm afraid I shan't get accustomed to town life. I like the woods and the river. Custom is a second nature, they say.”
3.A man can die but once. - Человек может умереть лишь один раз (дословно). Двум смертям не бывать, а одной не миновать (русский эквивалент). Адна казе смерць/ раней смерцш не памерці/ калі павесяць, дык не ўтопяць/ што будзе, то будзе, а дзве смерці не будзе/ два вякі жыць не будзеш (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: A father and his son were standing on the bank of a stream. The son jumped over it, but the father was afraid to. At last, murmuring, “A man can die but once,” the father jumped - and fell into the muddy water. But the young man quickly pulled him up onto the bank.
4.A cat in gloves catches no mice.- Кот в перчатках мышей не поймает(дословно). - Без труда не вытащишь и рыбки из пруда (русская пословица). – Каб вады напіцца, трэба ей пакланшцца/ па дарозе ідучы, грыбоў не набярэш (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: Mary wants her mother to make a nice cake, but she doesn't want to go to the shop to buy eggs and butter. “A cat in gloves catches no mice. There'll be no cake for you then,” says Mary's mother.
5.Murder will out. - Убийство раскроется (дословный перевод).Шила в мешке не утаишь (русская пословица). Грэх не схаваеш у мех/ лес чуе, а поле бачыць (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: “You know, Dad, when I was ten I didn't like geography and often got bad marks at geography lessons. So I tried to hide my day-book with bad marks in it.” “Why, Fred, do you think I didn't guess what you had done? Murder will out, after all.”
6.If the cap fits, wear it. - Если шапка подходит, носи ее (дословно). На воре шапка горит (русская пословица). Відаць па вачах, хто ходзіць па начах/ хто парасе ўкраў, таму ўвушшу пішчыць (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: “Don't you speak to me in that manner!” said Mary. “Do you think I took your book and lost it?” “Well, if the cap fits, wear it,” answered Kate.
7.Deeds, not words. - Нужны дела, а не слова. (дословный перевод). - О человеке судят по его делам (русская пословица).
Пословица в ситуации: “Mother! What does the proverb `Deeds, not words'mean?” “It means that a person is known and judged more by his actions than by what he says.”
8. Every dog has his day. - У каждой собаки свой праздник бывает. (дословный перевод). - Будет и на нашей улице праздник(русская пословица). – Заглянет сонца і ў наша ваконца(белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: “I'm lucky today, your turn will come later on. Tomorrow our positions may be reserved.” “Yes, every dog has his day and good fortune comes once to all of us.”
9. A drowning man will catch a straw. - Утопающий за соломинку схватится (дословный перевод). - Утопающий хватается за соломинку (русская пословица). – Хто топіцца- за брытву ўхопіцца(белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: “The young man will lose his sight, I am afraid, but still he and his parents hope when he gets stronger we shall be able to restore it”, said the doctor. “A drowning man will catch at a straw,” his friend remarked.
10.There is no smoke without fire. - Нет дыма без огня. Дословный перевод совпадает с русской пословицей. - Няма дыму без агню.
Пословица в ситуации: “Who told you this? Mary? I can't believe that Paul could let his friends down,” said Betty. “Believe it or not as you like, but there is no smoke without fire,” answered Mike.
11. Pride goes before a fall. - Гордыня до добра не доводит (дословный перевод). - Кто слишком высоко летает, тот низко падает (русская пословица).
Пословица в ситуации: Mary boasted that she would be a scientist, yet she couldn't enter the institute. “Remember, pride goes before a fall,” her friend said to her.
12. The proof of the pudding is in the eating. - Чтобы узнать, каков пудинг, надо его отведать (дословный перевод). - Все проверяется на практике (русская пословица). Обед узнают по кушанью, а ум по слушанью (русская пословица).- Усе правяраецца на практыцы (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: “I think that our young friend John is taking a big risk by starting up business of his own.” “It's hard to say yet. He may make a success of it. After all the proof of the pudding is in the eating, isn't it?”
13. Neck or nothing. - Либо добьюсь, либо себе шею сверну (дословный перевод). - Либо пан, либо пропал (русская пословица).
Пословица в ситуации: He trained very much for the competition. “It would be neck or nothing,” he said. He would break the school record in boxing and set a new one.
14.Cut your coat according to your cloth. - Крои пальто в соответствии с материалом (дословный перевод). - По одежке протягивай ножки (русская пословица).
Пословица в ситуации: The girl was poor and had to cut her coat according to her cloth.
15. Don't count your chickens before they are hatched. - Не считай цыплят, пока они не вылупились (дословный перевод). - Цыплят по осени считают (русская пословица). – Не той хлеб, што на полі, а той што ў гумне (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: “Don't count your chickens before they are hatched,” said Mary. “A coward's proverb,” cried Mike gaily. “You lose half the fun, if you don't”.
16. Care killed the cat. - Забота убила кошку (дословный перевод). - Заботы до добра не доводят (русская пословица). Не работа старит, а забота (русская пословица).
Пословица в ситуации: “Come, come,” said Tom, “stop this talk. Care killed the cat.”
17.Practise what you preach. - Поступай так, как проповедуешь (дословный перевод). - Слова не должны расходиться с делом (русская пословица).
Пословица в ситуации: The moral of the proverb “Practise what you preach” is: behave in the same way as you advise others to behave. Do not recommend early rising if you yourself lie in bed till noon.
18.It is no use crying over spilt milk. - Бесполезно лить слезы над пролитым молоком (дословный перевод). - Слезами горю не поможешь (русская пословица). Потерянного не воротишь (русская пословица). – Журба бядзе не помач. Плач, галасі, а рады не дасі. Слязьмі рады не дасі (белорусские эквиваленты).
Пословица в ситуации: There was a long silence, then he said, “Well, I judge there's no use crying over spilt milk.”
19. The devil is not so black as he is painted. Не так черен дьявол, как его рисуют (дословный перевод). - Не так страшен черт, как его малюют (русская пословица).
Пословица в ситуации: When Victor failed in the examination, life suddenly seemed very hard. But his father said that the devil was not so black as he was painted, and that Victor must try and take the examination again.
20. To make a silk purse out of the sow's ear. Сделать шелковый кошелек из уха свиньи (дословный перевод). - Сделать человека (русская пословица).
Пословица в ситуации: The boy was coarse and had bad manners. But he was good at heart. It was quite possible to make a silk purse out of that sow's ear.
21. Brevity is the soul of wit. - Краткость - душа ума (остроумия) (дословный перевод). - Краткость - сестра таланта (русская пословица).
Пословица в ситуации: He always writes short letters, he believes that brevity is the soul of wit.
22.No news is good news.-Отсутствие новостей - хорошая новость (дословный перевод). - Лучшая новость - отсутствие всякой новости (русская пословица).
Пословица в ситуации: The doctor said, 'Then there's no news at all; and no news, they say, is good news.'
23. Don't trouble trouble until trouble troubles you? - Не тревожь беду, пока беда сама не потревожит тебя (дословный перевод). - Не кличь беду, сама придет (русская пословица). Не буди лихa, пока лихо тихо (русская пословица). - Сядзі ціха – не будзеш ведаць ліха (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: His heart felt heavy with the thought that something was about to happen. “Don't trouble trouble until trouble troubles you!' said Mary angrily. And at once he felt a little better.
24.East or West, home is best. - Восток ли, запад ли, а дома лучше всего (дословный перевод). - В гостях хорошо, а дома лучше (русская пословица). – Дома і салома ядома (а на чужыне і гарачы тук стыне) (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: She was standing on the same bridge talking to Bob, whom she had not seen for five years. Well, East or West, home is best! She was happy to be at home again.
25.A good beginning makes a good ending. -Хорошее начало обеспечивает хороший конец (дословный перевод). - Лиха беда начало. Доброе начало полдела откачало (русские пословицы). – Як есць пачатак, будзе й канчатак (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: The first time-period was over with the score 2:0. The coach was pleased with the result. A good beginning makes a good ending.
26. Great boast, small roast. - Много похвальбы, да мало жареного (дословный перевод). - Звону много, толку мало (русская пословица). - Звонам шмат, толку мала (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: Mr. Green was not a modest person. He liked to boast his rich house, his pretty garden, his clever children and many other things. Neighbors said about him: “Great boast, small roast.”
27. Don't cross a bridge till you come to it. - Не переходи моста, пока ты до него не добрался (дословный перевод). - Наперед не загадывай (русская пословица). Не дели не убитого медведя (русская пословица). Не говори «гоп», пока не перепрыгнешь (русская пословица). – Не скубі, пакуль не зловіш (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: Don't worry about something before it has happened. Your fears may be groundless, for it may never happen. You mustn't cross a bridge till you come to it.
27. Bad news travels fast. - Плохая весть быстро передается (дословный перевод). - Худые вести не лежат на месте. Плохая молва на крыльях летит (русские пословицы).
Пословица в ситуации: The proverb “Bad news travels fast” means that bad news nearly always reaches us more quickly than good news
29. Scratch my back and I'll scratch yours. - Почеши мне спину, тогда я твою почешу (дословный перевод). - Услуга за услугу (русская пословица). - Паслуга за паслугу (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: My new friend helped me home with my luggage and I asked her to stay with me until I found her a room. You know the saying “Scratch my back and I'll scratch yours.”
30. Curiosity killed a cat. - Любопытство погубило кошку (дословный перевод). - Любопытство до добра не доводит. Много будешь знать, скоро состаришься (русские пословицы). – Меней ведаеш – лепей спіш. Шмат будзеш ведаць- галава аблезе (белорусские эквиваленты).
Пословица в ситуации: “I am sorry,” he said, “I know I shouldn't have come.” “They say that curiosity killed the cat, but I never believed it when I was your age”.
31. The rotten apple injures its neighbours. - Гнилое яблоко портит соседние яблоки (дословный перевод). - Паршивая овца все стадо портит (русская пословица). – Праз аднаго барана ўвесь статак паганы (белорусские эквиваленты).
Пословица в ситуации: Nick's mother was strongly against her son's friendship with Pete. She was afraid that it would tell upon her son, who was a good pupil. “A rotten apple injures its neighbours,” she often said to him.
32.Hunger is the best sauce. -Голод - лучшая приправа (дословный перевод). - Голод - лучший повар (русская пословица). – На галодны зуб усе смачна (белорусские эквиваленты).
Пословица в ситуации: Oliver Twist and his little friends ate everything they were given. Hunger is the best sauce, you know.
33. Appetite comes with eating. -Аппетит приходит во время еды. Дословный перевод совпадает с русской пословицей. - Апетыт прыходзіць падчас ежы (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: “Appetite comes with eating,” my mother says always when I refuse to eat.
34. Appearances are deceitful. - Наружность (внешность) обманчива (дословный перевод). Дословный перевод совпадает с русской пословицей. – Не кожны спіць, хто храпіць (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: He is not so quiet as he looks. His appearance is deceitful.
35.What is done cannot be undone. - Что сделано, того не переделаешь (дословный перевод). - Сделанного не воротишь. Что с возу упало, то пропало (русские пословицы).
Пословица в ситуации: “I am afraid, sir, that you have ruined a great career.” `I suppose that is so,” he answered with a sigh. “What is done cannot be undone.”
36. Catch the bear before you sell his skin. - Прежде поймай медведя, а потом продавай его шкуру (дословный перевод). - Не убив медведя, шкуры не продавай (русская пословица).
Пословица в ситуации: Never sell the bear's skin until you have killed the bear.
37.Every cloud has a silver lining. - Всякое облако серебром оторочено (дословный перевод). - Нет худа без добра (русская пословица). - Няма худа без дабра (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: Don't get upset. Every cloud has a silver lining.
38.First think, then speak. - Сперва подумай, потом говори (дословный перевод). - Слово не воробей, вылетит, не поймаешь (русская пословица). – Высказанага слова да губы не вернеш (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: The favourite proverb of our teacher is “First think, then speak”. Sometimes he says: "To speak without thinking is to shoot without looking."
39.To tell tales out of school. - Разбалтывать (сплетничать) за стенами школы (дословный перевод). - Выносить сор из избы (русская пословица). – Смецце на вуліцу выносіць (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: “He's got into trouble.” “Tell us about it.” “I must not tell tales out of school.”
40.Two heads are better than one. - Две головы лучше одной (дословный перевод). - Ум хорошо, а два лучше (русская пословица). – Што два, то не адзін. Адно вока бачыць далека, а два – яшчэ далей (белорусские эквиваленты).
Пословица в ситуации: I want to know what you really think I should do. Two heads are better than one, you know, even mine is one of them.
41.Still waters run deep. - Тихие воды имеют глубокое течение (дословный перевод). - В тихом омуте черти водятся (русская пословица). - У ціхім віры чэрці водзяцца (белорусский эквивалент).
Пословица в ситуации: "I don't understand the proverb `Still waters run deep' quite clearly. Can you explain it to me?" "The proverb has the meaning that the fact that a man says little does not mean that he does not think profoundly, while those who talk the most have no depth of feeling".