Методические рекомендации для самоподготовки к устной части зачёта по английскому языку для студентов 4 курса


Бюджетное образовательное учреждение
среднего профессионального образования
Вологодской области
«Кадуйский политехнический техникум»
МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ
ДЛЯ САМОПОДГОТОВКИ К ЭКЗАМЕНУ
по дисциплине «Английский язык»
для студентов 4 курса СПО по специальности
140102 Теплоснабжение и теплотехническое оборудование
Кадуй2014
ОДОБРЕНЫ
методической цикловой комиссией по ООД БОУ СПО ВО«Кадуйский политехнический техникум»
Протокол №___от ________2014г.
Настоящие методические рекомендации предназначены для студентов специальности 140102 Теплоснабжение и теплотехническое оборудование очной формы обучения как руководство к подготовке и успешной сдаче устной части экзамена по учебной дисциплине на четвертом курсе.
Составитель: С.М.Кобрина, преподаватель английского языка
Рецензент: К.В.Кузнецов, преподаватель английского языка филиала НОУ ВПО «СФГА» в г.Череповце, кандидат филологических наук
ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА
Методические рекомендации разработаны для помощи студентам специальности 140102 Теплоснабжение и теплотехническое оборудование очной формы обучения, изучающим английский язык в среднем профессиональном учебном заведении, при подготовке к устной части экзамена по окончанию четвертого курса обучения.
Экзамен по английскому языку по окончании четвертого курса обучения состоит из двух частей: письменной и устной:
1) Написание грамматического теста (45 минут).
2) Беседа на иностранном языке по одной из следующих тем устной речи:
Electric power
Power Engineering
Electric Current
Electric Circuit
The Profession of a Heating Engineer
Types of Heating Systems
Types of Turbines
Boilers
Types of Power Stations
Safety Regulation at a Power Station
Getting a Job
Business Telephone Call
At the Customs
Meeting Our Power Plant
Vologda Region’s Ecological Outlook
Методические рекомендации содержат методические указания по самостоятельной подготовке к устной части экзамена, перечень тем, выносимых на экзамен, тексты тем и вопросы к ним для самостоятельной подготовки к экзамену и список рекомендуемой литературы.
Общие методические указания
по самостоятельной подготовке к устной части экзамена
Подготовка студентов очного отделения к экзамену является одним из основных и трудоемких видов учебной деятельности. Эффективность этой деятельности во многом зависит от самостоятельной работы при подготовке к экзамену. В часы самоподготовки необходимо самостоятельно изучить материал. При этом самостоятельную работу необходимо понимать не только как «домашнюю» работу по подготовке к практическому занятию, но и как всю совокупность предшествующих ему занятий:
- изучение задания и методических указаний к практическому занятию по данной теме;
- консультации накануне проведения зачета и получение индивидуальной методической помощи;
- изучение рекомендованной литературы, работа со словарями.
Для более эффективной работы с текстом, необходимо:
прочитать текст;
перевести текст, пользуясь словарем по необходимости;
ответить на вопросы, приведенные после текста;
по вопросам составить план собственного монологического высказывания по теме;
выделить для себя и выучить ключевые слова;
пересказать текст не менее двух раз;
при первом пересказе постараться пользоваться ключевыми словами и вопросами к тексту;
второй раз пересказать текст, не смотря на слова, текст, вопросы. Если это не удается, вернитесь к предыдущему пункту.
Topic 1. Electric power
Electric power is generated by converting heat, light, chemical energy, or mechanical energy to electrical energy. Most electrical energy is produced in large power stations by the conversion of mechanical energy or heat.
The mechanical energy of falling water is used to drive turbine generators in hydroelectric stations. The heat derived by burning fossil fuels is used to operate steam turbines or internal-combustion engines. Also, the heat from the fissioning of uranium or plutonium is used to generate steam for the turbine generator in a nuclear power plant. Electricity generated by the conversion of light or chemical energy is used mainly for portable power sources.
Electric power produced in large power stations generally is transmitted by using an alternating current that reverses direction 25, 50, or 60 times per second. The basic unit for measuring electric power is the watt.
Rating for power plants is expressed in kilowatts or megawatts. Electricity is a clean, inexpensive and easily transmitted over long distances. Since the 1880s electricity has had an ever-increasing role in improving the standard of living. It now used to operate lights, pumps, elevators, power tools, furnaces, refrigerators, air-conditioners, TV sets, and many other kinds of equipment.
Vocabulary: conversion – преобразование; превращение
toderive – извлекать, получать
alternating current – переменный ток
furnace – печь
fossil fuels – ископаемое топливо
power tools – электроинструменты
to generate – вырабатывать
nuclear power plant - АЭС standard of living – уровень жизни
pump – насос
electric circuit- электрическая цепь
equipment – оборудование
to transmit – передавать
power plant/station – ЭС
distance – расстояние
steam turbine – паровая турбина
internal-combustion engine – двигатель внутреннего сгорания
fission – деление, расщепление, фрагментация
portable – портативный, переносной, транспортабельный
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
1. Where is electric power used?
2. What is the basic unit for measuring electric power?
3. What is the rating for power plants expressed in?
4. How is electric power produced in large power stations transmitted?
5. Why is electric power considered to be the most widespread?
6. Why has it improved the standard of living?
Topic 2. Power Engineering
Power engineering is the subfield of electrical engineering that deals with power systems, electric power transmission and distribution, power conversion, and electromechanical devices. Power engineers also rely heavily on the theory of control systems. A power engineer supervises, operates, and maintains machinery and boilers that provide heat, power, refrigeration, and other utility services to heavy industry and large building complexes.
Power engineering deals with the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity as well as the design of a range of related devices. These include transformers, electric generators, electric motors and power electronics.
In many regions of the world, governments maintain an electrical network that connects a variety of electric generators together with users of their power. This network is called a power grid. Users purchase electricity from the grid avoiding the costly exercise of having to generate their own.
Today, most grids adopt three-phase electric power with an alternating current. This choice can be partly attributed to the ease with which this type of power can be generated, transformed and used. Often (especially in the USA), the power is split before it reaches residential customers whose low-power appliances rely upon single-phase electric power. However, many larger industries and organizations still prefer to receive the three-phase power directly because it can be used to drive highly efficient electric motors such as three-phase induction motors.
Vocabulary:
subfield –раздел, часть
distribution – распределение
tosupervise – наблюдать, заведовать
utility services – коммунальные службы
toexploit – эксплуатировать, использовать
power engineering – энергетика
to operate – управлять
boilers – котельные установки
network - сеть range – линия, ряд
to purchase –покупать
maintenance – обслуживание
to split – разделять
grid power system – система электроснабжения
machinery – оборудование
customers – потребители
to adopt - принимать
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
1. What is power engineering?
2. What are the duties of a power engineer?
3. What does power engineering deal with?
4. What does a range of related devices include?
5. What network is called a power grid?
6. Why do users purchase electricity from the grid?
7. What do most grids adopt?
Topic 3. Electric Current
Electric current is the name for the flow of electrons that makes up the movement of electric charge. Current flows when the voltage on one end of a conductor differs from the voltage on the other end of a conductor. A force that most people deal with nearly every day, flowing current includes lighting, electrical power cords, and the surprising shock that comes from shuffling shoes on carpet in dry weather. This force is measured in units called amperes.
Current is а flow of electricity through а circuit. Let us consider two main types of current: direct and alternating.
А direct current flows through а conducting circuit in one direction only. It flows provided а direct voltage source is applied to the circuit.
An alternating current is а current that changes its direction of flow through а circuit. It flows provided an alternating voltage source is applied to the circuit. Alternating current flows in cycles. Thе number of cycles per second is called the frequency of the current.
It is easy to transform а.c. power from one voltage to another by а transformer. Transformers are also used to step down the voltage at the receiving point of the line to the low values that are necessary for use.
When necessary а.С. сan bе changed into d.c. but this is seldom necessary.

Vocabulary:
current - ток is measured - измеряется
flow - поток unit - единица
electric charge – электрический заряд а circuit - цепь
voltage - напряжение alternating - переменный
сonductor - проводник direct - постоянный
differ - различаться direction - направление
lighting - освещение provided – при условии
power cords – шнуры питанияto transform –передавать
to step down -понизить frequency – частота
transformer–трансформатор
value -величина
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
1. What is current?
2. What types оf current do уоu know?
3. When does а direct current flow?
4. What type of current is called an alternating current?
5. What type of current is called а direct current?
6. What is called the frequency of current?
7. What device is used to transform а.с. power from one voltage to another?
8. Is it often necessary to change а.c. into d.c.?
Topic 4. Electric Circuit
An electric circuit is an electrical device that provides a path for electrical current to flow. Electricity flows through the circuit and is delivered to the object it is powering, such as the vacuum motor or light bulb, after which the electricity is sent back to the original source; this return of electricity enables the circuit to keep the electricity current flowing.
The circuit consists of а voltage source, а resistor and а conductor. А voltage source supplies current. А resistor reduces current. А conductor connects the elements of the circuit.
Three types of electrical circuits exist: the series circuit, the parallel circuit, and the series-parallel circuit.
A series circuit is the simplest because it has only one possible path that the electrical current may flow; if the electrical circuit is broken, none of the load devices will work.
The difference with parallel circuits is that they contain more than one path for electricity to flow. So, if one of the paths is broken, the other paths will continue to work.
A series-parallel circuit is a combination of the first two: it attaches some of the loads to a series circuit and others to parallel circuits. If the series circuit breaks, none of the loads will function, but if one of the parallel circuits breaks, that parallel circuit and the series circuit will stop working, while the other parallel circuits will continue to work.
Vocabulary:
conductor - проводник parallel circuit - параллельная цепь
circuit - цепь series circuit – последовательное соединение
to reduce - снижать path - путь
to supply - снабжать to contain - содержать
to connect - связывать load device – устройство нагрузки
to сompare (with) - сравнивать (с) to enable - позволять
to function - функционировать light bulb - лампочка
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
What is the electric circuit?
How does the electricity flow through the circuit?
3. What elements does a circuit consist оf?
4. What is the function of а voltage source?
5. What is the function о! а conductor?
6. What is the function of а resistor?
7. What are the types of circuits?
8. What is the difference between the circuits?
Topic 5. The Profession of a Heating Engineer
Driving advances in heating technology are heating engineers. These engineers not only develop heating technology but also help with the installation and repair of heating units.
Heating engineers design and implement solutions to heating needs for residential developers, heating equipment manufacturers and individual clients who need heating equipment installed or repaired. They are also hired by construction managers to estimate what the heating needs are going to be for a building under construction, to determine how much space should be allocated for heating equipment, to determine which heating equipment is the most relevant to use and to troubleshoot issues whenever the heating equipment does not appear to work properly.
The usual work environment for a heating engineer is a residential, commercial or industrial building. Heating units use electricity, which leads to electrical wires that can harm the engineer if he is not careful. Some of these engineers spend their time in manufacturing plants owned by their companies, while other heating engineers have to travel extensively to construction sites and repair sites.
Just like other engineers, the heating engineer needs at least a bachelor’s degree in engineering in order to work as an engineer. Heating engineers must have thorough knowledge of both mechanical engineering and thermodynamics, according to Education-Portal.
Between 2008 and 2018, the need for heating engineers is expected to grow by 6 percent, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. These engineers are hired to provide increasingly sophisticated products in order to drive consumer demand.

Vocabulary: to troubleshoot issues – устранять неполадки
advances – продвижение, прогресс
heating engineer – инженер-теплотехник
installation - установка
repair - ремонт
heating units – отопительные установки
to design - разрабатывать
to implement – осуществлять, выполнять
heating needs – отопительные нужды
residential - жилой
heating equipment – отопител. обор-ниеwork environment – рабочая среда
to harm – причинять вред
bachelor’s degree – степень бакалавра
in order to – чтобы, с тем, чтобы
mechanical engineering -машиностроение
thorough knowledge of – глубокие знания
construction managers – инженеры-строители
construction sites – строительные объекты
to estimate - оценить
to determine - определить
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
1. Do heating engineers help with the installation and repair of heating units?
2. What are the main tasks of heating engineers?
3. What is the usual work environment for a heating engineer?
4. What degree does a heating engineer need in order to work?
5. Must heating engineers have thorough knowledge of both mechanical engineering and thermodynamics?
Topic 6. Types of Heating Systems
There are many different types of heating systems to consider: forced air, radiant heat, hydronic, steam radiant, and geothermal. Each type of heat should be considered for its effectiveness in meeting the budget and heating and cooling needs for the home.
The forced air heating system is most commonly seen in residential structures. It works by heating air in a furnace and then forcing the air out into various areas of the home through installed ductwork and vents.
The radiant heat heating system is often praised for its ability to produce natural and comfortable heat in a home. Heat is commonly delivered through a system of hot water tubes underneath the floor, although these tubes can also be installed in ceiling panels. The hot water is heated using a boiler.
Radiant heat is often slow to heat a room because the water must first be heated and circulated through the pipes. It can be expensive to install and maintain because of the difficult getting to the tubing systems if a problem occurs.
In a hot water baseboard system a boiler heats hot water, which then is circulated through tubes; for hydronic heat, these tubes are located in baseboard heating units attached to the walls in each room of the home. These systems are usually quiet, energy efficient, and may be fueled by electricity, oil, or natural gas.
Steam radiant heating systems heat a room through upright units referred to as "radiators." These systems use either one or two pipes, and heat water through a variety of methods such as electricity, oil, or natural gas. While these units may be energy efficient and warm a room quickly, they can be inconvenient for furniture placement, as the walls and surrounding area must be clear to avoid fire hazards.
Geothermal heating systems can be expensive to install; however, because of their ability to use the heat from the Earth to regulate temperature, they are said to greatly reduce the costs associated with heating and cooling a home.

Vocabulary: vents - вентиляция
radiant heat – лучистое тепло
hydronic – гидравлическая система
steam radiant - паровое отопление
geothermal - геотермальный
ductwork - воздуховод
to avoid fire hazards – избежать пожара
cooling - охлаждение ceiling panels – потолочные панели
boiler – нагреватель, бойлер
to maintain – обслуживать, поддерживать
baseboard - плинтус
attached - прикрепленный
placement - местоположение
to reduce the costs – снизить затраты
forced air heating system – принудительно-воздушное отопление
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
1. What are the main types of heating systems?
2. How should each type of heat be considered for?
3. What heating system is most commonly seen in residential structures?
4. What heating system can be expensive to install and maintain because of the difficult getting to the tubing systems?
Topic 7. Types of Turbines
A turbine is a turbo machine with a moving part called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor.
The steam turbine is mainly used by thermal power plants that burn either fossil fuels or use nuclear energy to drive generators for consumer electricity. A steam turbine typically consists of conical, steel shell enclosing a central shaft along which a series of bladed disks are spaced like washers.
Some of gas turbines are used to drive electric generators, as in a gas turbine-electric locomotive, and high-speed tools. Gas turbine’s essential components are a compressor, a combustion chamber, and a turbine that resembles a steam turbine. The turbine drives the compressor, which feeds high-pressure air into the combustion chamber; there it is mixed with a fuel and burned, providing high-pressure gases to drive the turbine. The gas turbine is mainly used by jet aircraft.
Water or hydraulic turbines are identified with dams and the generation of hydroelectric power. When a turbine is operated by rapidly flowing or falling water, it is called an impulse turbine. In hydraulic turbines of the reaction type the turbine is underwater and is turned by both the weight and speed of its flow. Its shaft is vertical and has either spirally curved blades or ones that resemble a ship's propeller.
Wind turbines use an airfoil to generate a reaction lift from the moving fluid and impart it to the rotor. Wind turbines also gain some energy from the impulse of the wind, by deflecting it at an angle. Cross flow turbines are designed as an impulse machine, with a nozzle, but in low head applications maintain some efficiency through reaction, like a traditional water wheel.
Vocabulary:
rotor assembly – узел ротора combustion chamber – камера сгорания
shaft - вал to resemble – быть похожим на
blade - лопасть jet aircraft – самолетостроение
to impart - передавать hydraulic - гидравлический
to drive – приводить в действие dam – плотина, дамба
shell – оболочка, корпус weight - вес
washer – шайба, промывательairfoil – аэродинамический профиль
angle - угол deflect – отклонять,преломлятьAnswer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
What is a turbine?
How does the moving fluid act?
What does the steam turbine consist of?
What are gas turbines used to drive?
What is called an impulse turbine? hydraulic turbines of the reaction type?
Topic 8. Boilers
A boiler is an enclosed vessel that provides a means for combustion heat to be transferred to water until it becomes heated water or steam. The hot water or steam under pressure is then usable for transferring the heat to a process. Water is a useful and inexpensive medium for transferring heat to a process.
The source of heat for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or natural gas.
The boiler system comprises of a feed water system, steam system and fuel system. The feed water system provides water to the boiler and regulates it automatically to meet the steam demand. The steam system collects and controls the steam produced in the boiler. The fuel system includes all equipment used to provide fuel to generate the necessary heat.
The form and size of a boiler depends on the application: mobile steam engines such as steam locomotives, portable engines and steam-powered road vehicles typically use a smaller boiler that forms an integral part of the vehicle; stationary steam engines, industrial installations and power stations will usually have a larger separate steam generating facility connected to the point-of-use by piping.
The steam generator or boiler is an integral component of a steam engine when considered as a prime mover. A boiler incorporates a firebox or furnace in order to burn the fuel and generate heat. The generated heat is transferred to water to make steam, the process of boiling.
Vocabulary:
enclosed vessel – закрытый сосуд medium - среда portable engine - локомобиль
feed water system – система подачи воды vehicle – средство передвижения
steam demand - паропотребление to incorporate - включать
application - применение piping - трубопровод
facility - установка prime mover – первичный двигатель
industrial installation – промышленная установка
stationary steam engine –стационарная паровая машина
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
What is a boiler?
What does the boiler provide?
What is the source of heat for a boiler?
What does the boiler system comprise of?
Why does the feed water system provide water to the boiler and regulate it automatically?
What is a steam generator used to?
Does a boiler incorporate a firebox or furnace in order to burn the fuel and generate heat?
Topic 9. Types of Power Stations
Nuclear power plants work on the chemical process of fission. Fission is a type of nuclear reaction in which the atoms of nuclear fuels absorb free neutrons, they split into two or more small nuclei and some free neutrons. In the process, large amount of energy is released. The free energy released by nuclear material is millions times more than that contained in an equal amount of any other traditional fuel. However, a lot of radioactive material is created in the process. This raises the problem of managing nuclear waste. Reducing threats involves high designing skills, extensive research and use of advanced technology.
Thermal Power Plants generate electrical energy from thermal energy. The heat generated by burning the fossil fuels is used to turn rotating machinery, most commonly a steam turbine or a gas turbine that changes the thermal energy into mechanical energy. The rotating turbine is attached to an alternator that converts the mechanical energy of the rotating turbine into electrical energy. Handling and disposal of ash plays an important role in maintaining the environmental balance.
Hydro Power Plants use the kinetic energy of flowing water to produce electrical energy. Hydro power plants store water in large reservoirs. Water in these reservoirs flow down the dam and rotate a turbine. As the blades of a turbine turn, so do the magnets inside the generator which is connected to the turbine. These magnets rotate past copper coils and with each rotation, electricity is produced. Their major drawback is their dependence on the hydrological cycle of the area where they are built. Direct benefits include availability of water for drinking and for crops, improved irrigation, good employment opportunities.
Solar energy is one of the most abundant natural resources that is capable of providing more power than the current demand requires. In most of the solar power plants the rays of the sun are concentrated into a single beam using lenses and mirrors. The beam is then used to heat a working fluid that is used to generate power. On the surface of the earth, various factors like day/night cycle, changing weather and seasons affect the process of energy collection.
Vocabulary:
fission - расщепление to rotate - вращать
to reduce threats – уменьшить угрозы drawback - недостаток
designing skills – навыки проектирования benefits - достоинства
extensive research – обширные исследования availability - способность
alternator - генератор the current demand – текущий спрос
disposal of ash – утилизация золы single beam – один луч
to store - хранить lenses - линзы
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
1. What process is called fission?
2. Does a steam turbine change the thermal energy into mechanical or electrical energy?
3. Where do hydro power plants store water?
4. What factors affect the process of energy collection?
Topic 10. Safety Regulation at a Power Station
Power plant employers are required to ensure employees not to perform maintenance on machinery or equipment that can start up unexpectedly or release stored energy. At least two employees must be present when equipment such as transformers are installed, removed or repaired.
All openings in power plant floors must be guarded so people can't accidentally walk into them. The guard can either be a railing or a cover. Floor openings include stairways, hatchways. A rail, fence, half-door or other equivalent barrier must guard wall openings with a drop of four feet or more.
Power plants must post a Danger sign near any confined space employees might have to enter or work in, if entering or working in the space poses a risk of serious physical harm. Power plants must also have a procedure for rescuing people from confined spaces and providing them with emergency services.
In power plants, proper and current identification markers can be the difference between a normal working day and disaster. Signs that identify motors, tools, equipment, oil guns, feeders, pulverizers and even a map of the area's location within the power plant may one day save the life of a worker or visitor.
Labels identifying different wires, lines and cables in a power plant make finding the correct line safe and simple. Easily seen markers that show the location of less-visible pipes, panels, valves, tubing, conduits, transmitters and nearby safety equipment are essential for a safe working environment.

Vocabulary:
to ensure - обеспечить a railing - перила
to perform maintenance - выполнять обслуживание hatchway - люк
release - выпустить harm – вред, урон
stored energy - накопленная энергия sign – знак, надпись
employer - работодатель pose a risk of – создать риск чего-л.
employee - работник confined space – закрытое помещение
opening - отверстиеemergency services – аварийный службы
guarded - защищенный disaster – несчастье, катастрофа
guard – защита, ограждение working environment – рабочая среда
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
What are power plant employers required to?
Must all openings in power plant floors be guarded?
Can the guard be a railing or an opening?
What do openings include?
Power plants must have a procedure for rescuing people from confined spaces and providing them with emergency services, mustn’t they?
Do labels make finding the correct line safe and simple?
Topic 11. Getting a job
Getting a job is a very hard period in the life of most people. Companies choose an employee from hundreds of candidates according to special rules, that is why there are special "typical" factors, influencing on employer’s choice. Among such factors are: age, sex, experience, marital status, personality and references.
If you are to go to an interview, you should sleep well before it and do not forget your CV at home, read annual report, or a newspaper of the company to show your understanding of the corporate strategy on the interview. You should also choose corresponding dress code for the interview. Even such advices are to help you make a good impression.
After getting a job, you may have some unexpected troubles with boss, too: e.g. if you dye your hair or wear something not appropriate. The best solution of such situation is to ask a trade union for advice, which can always help you in your fight with an employer. Of course, if you affect company discipline not coming in time or working badly, your dismissal would not be unfair.
To conclude, I can say that it is sometimes hard not only to get a job, but also to work in the staff, and if you do not want to be laid off, you should follow company rules, it is a must.
Vocabulary:
getting a job – получение работы to go to an interview – идти на собеседование
employee – работник, служащий annual report – годовой отчет
employer - работодатель corresponding - соответствующий
to influence on – влиять на to be laid off – быть уволенным
sex - пол unexpected troubles – неожиданные неприятности
experience - опыт the best solution – лучшее решение
marital status – семейное положение trade union - профсоюз
personality – личные качества a must – долг, обязанность
references - рекомендации to work in the staff – работать в коллективе
dismissal - увольнение make a good impression – создать хорошее впечатление
unfair - несправедливый follow company rules – следовать правилам компании
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
What are special "typical" factors, influencing on employer’s choice?
What should you take with you going to an interview?
What should one do beforehand?
Does corresponding dress code exist?
What troubles can happen after getting a job?
Should you follow company rules? Why?
Topic 12. Business Telephone Call
A: Good morning, John Sharp speaking.B: John, hello. Tony Mills from Mega deals here. I've got a problem with that last order…A: A problem, did you say?B: Yes, well the order was incomplete. We ordered 600 items but when we checked the consignment, it was obvious that we hadn't got them all.A: So how many were you short?B: Well, they came in boxes of 50 and we only had 8 boxes so we're missing 200.A: When do you need the remainder?B: By Monday; we must have them by Monday.A: Immediately after the weekend, you say?B: Well, we could just stretch to Tuesday but no later because…A: Okay, leave it with me. I'll get on to dispatch and make sure you get another 200 by Tuesday at the latest.B: Thank you; I’ll call you back if there’s a further problem.
Vocabulary:
order - заказ to check the consignment – проверить партию
incomplete - невыполненный remainder – остальное, оставшаяся часть
item - изделие to stretch - растягивать
obvious - очевидный to get on to dispatch – связаться с отделом сбыта
to be short - недоставать to make sure - убедиться
to miss - недоставать at the latest – самое позднее
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to act out the dialogue:
What kind of telephone conversation is it?
What was Tony Mills from Mega deals’ problem?
How many items were they short?
They needed the remainder by Monday, didn’t they?
What was John Sharp’s solution?
Was Tony Mills satisfied with his telephone call?
Topic 13. At the Customs
O.: Could I have your passport, please?
T.: Certainly, here it is.
O.: Have you anything to declare?
T.: Nothing.
O.: Where are you going?
T.: I’m going to Manchester.
O.: How long are you going to stay there?
T.: Two weeks.
O.: And what’s the purpose of your trip?
T.: I’m going there on invitation. My aunt lives in Manchester.
O.: And can I see your vaccination certificate?
T.: Here you are.
O.: Your passport and vaccination certificate are in order.
Well, would you mind opening this bag, please?
T.: There you are.
O.: Thank you. Right. That’s all. You can go through now.
Have a pleasant flight, sir.
T.: Thank you.
Vocabulary:
to stay - остановиться invitation - приглашение
the purpose - цель vaccination certificate – прививочный сертификат
trip – поездка, путешествие to be in order – быть в порядке
pleasant flight – приятный полёт to go through - пройти
to declare – показывать, заявлять Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to act out the dialogue:
What did the customs’ officer ask for first?
Did the customs’ officer ask the tourist about the purpose of his visit?
What did the tourist answer about the purpose of his visit?
What else did the customs’ officer ask the tourist to show?
Did the customs’ officer wish a pleasant flight to the tourist?
Topic 14. Meeting Our Power Plant

Cherepovetskaya GRES is located in the Kadui settlement of the Vologda Region 50 km west of Cherepovets city. The installed capacity of the plant is 630 MW. The installed heat capacity is 39 Gcal/h.
The primary fuel for the plant is DSSH and DMSHS-grade coal from: Khakassia (Stepnoy coal strip mine, Chernogorskaya Coal Company Khakassrazrez-Ugol, Vostochno-Beisky), Intinsky and Kuznetsky (Evtinsky and Zadubovsky coal strip mines) and natural gas. The reserve fuel is gas; the starting fuel is gas and fuel oil.
The competitors of Cherepovetskaya GRES are plants connected to the region via 500 kW power lines i.e. Kostromskaya and Konakovskaya GRES (flexible generation) and Kalininskaya NPP (750 kW base schedule). Cherepovetskaya GRES has a competitive advantage of being able to use both coal and gas for power generation.
The plant’s capacity is not limited by factors of a seasonal nature.
In August 2010, the Board of Directors of OGK-6 picked the winner in the competition for the construction of a new block of Cherepovets GRES, it became an engineering company E4 Group.
Power combined cycle power will be built as part of the current Cherepovets GRES. It will reach 420 MW. The contract amount is equal to 17.8 billion rubles. All construction must be completed no later than 2014. The main supplier of equipment for the new unit is the company Siemens. Work on the construction of new power unit began in January 2011.
Vocabulary:
settlement - поселение a competitive advantage – конкурентное преимущество
region - область picked the winner – выбрать победителя
supplier - поставщик the contract amount – сумма контракта
unit - установка the installed capacity – установленная мощность
coal strip mine – угольная шахта the installed heat capacity – установленная тепловая мощность
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
Where is Cherepovetskaya GRES located?
What is the installed capacity of the plant?
What is the installed heat capacity?
What is the primary fuel for the plant?
What are the competitors of Cherepovetskaya GRES?
Is the plant’s capacity is limited by factors of a seasonal nature?
What significant event has happened in August 2010?
When did the work on the construction of new power unit begin?
Topic 15. Vologda Region’s Ecological Outlook
The most important industries - ferrous metallurgy, chemical industry, power industry, pulp and paper industry, woodworking industry, and mechanical engineering – are the key sources of adverse impacts on the environment and human health. Environmental expenses in the Vologda Region have increased significantly.
Most of environmental investments channeled into the upgrade of production facilities and installation and/or increase of the capacity of emission and discharge treatment units to decrease the pollutant loads for the environment. As a result, one can trace a decrease in the total amounts of emissions from point sources and contaminated effluent discharges since 2000.
However, there is no relief from problems with the air and surface water quality and waste management, as well as adverse health effects linked to environmental media contamination, which are the key environmental issues on the regional environmental policy agenda. Only 78% of all the emitted pollutants are captured treated. Contaminated discharge rate is 38% of the total discharges, and 40% of drinking water samples analyzed did not comply with sanitary and hygiene standards for the chemical composition.
The following issues require immediate actions of the environmental agencies:
1) further increase of environmental investments;
2) accumulating funds for mitigation of environmental effects of techno genic accidents and other cases of unexpected unintentional damage to the environment;
3) improving supervision over enterprises and organizations whose operations pose significant environmental threats;
4) integration of environmental insurance into regional environmental protection.
Vocabulary:
adverse impacts on – неблагоприятное воздействие на emission - выбросы
expenses - расходы relief - облегчение
to increase/decrease – увеличить/уменьшить waste management – обращение с отходами
to channel - направить contamination - загрязнение
upgrade - обновление to comply - соответствовать
funds - средства mitigation - смягчение
to pose a threat – представлять угрозу insurance – меры предосторожности
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
What are the key sources of adverse impacts on the environment and human health in the Vologda Region?
What do most of environmental investments channel into?
Which are the key environmental issues on the regional environmental policy agenda?
Рекомендуемая литература для подготовки к экзаменуЛуговая А.Л. Английский язык для студентов энергетических специальностей: Учебное пособие/ А.Л.Луговая. – М.: Высшая школа, 2009. – 150с.:ил.
Материалы Интернет:
http://wikipedia.org/http://en.wikipedia.org/http://www.buzzle.com/
http://www.twirpx.comhttp://www.wisegeek.com/
http://twt.mpei.ac.ru/
http://www.power.mag.comhttp://www.power-eng.com/http://worldenergy.orghttp://www.globalenergybusiness.comhttp://www.ehow.com/http://www.fpl.com/http://www.ogk2.ru/eng/
http://reports.severstal.com/

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