Методические рекомендации для самоподготовки к устной части зачёта по английскому языку для студентов 3 курса


Бюджетное образовательное учреждение
среднего профессионального образования
Вологодской области
«Кадуйский политехнический техникум»
МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ
ДЛЯ САМОПОДГОТОВКИ К ЗАЧЕТУ
по дисциплине «Английский язык»
для студентов 3 курса СПО по специальности
140102 Теплоснабжение и теплотехническое оборудование
Кадуй2014
ОДОБРЕНЫ
методической цикловой комиссией по ООД БОУ СПО ВО«Кадуйский политехнический техникум»
Протокол №___от ________2014г.
Настоящие методические рекомендации предназначены для студентов специальности 140102 Теплоснабжение и теплотехническое оборудование очной формы обучения как руководство к подготовке и успешной сдаче устной части зачета по учебной дисциплине на третьем курсе.
Составитель: С.М.Кобрина, преподаватель английского языка
Рецензент: К.В.Кузнецов, преподаватель английского языка филиала НОУ ВПО «СФГА» в г.Череповце, кандидат филологических наук
ПОЯСНИТЕЛЬНАЯ ЗАПИСКА
Методические рекомендации разработаны для помощи студентам специальности 140102 Теплоснабжение и теплотехническое оборудование очной формы обучения, изучающим английский язык в среднем профессиональном учебном заведении, при подготовке к устной части зачета по окончанию третьего курса обучения.
Зачет по английскому языку по окончании третьего курса обучения состоит из двух частей: письменной и устной:
1) Написание грамматического теста (45 минут).
2) Беседа на иностранном языке по одной из следующих тем устной речи:
1. My Future Profession
2. Types of Heating Systems
3. The Forced Air Heating System
4. Thermal Networks
5. Types of Turbines
6. Boilers
7. Generators at Thermal Power Plants
8. Types of Power Stations
9. Thermal Power Plants
10. Safety Regulation at a Power Station
Методические рекомендации содержат методические указания по самостоятельной подготовке к устной части зачета, перечень тем, выносимых на зачёт, тексты тем и вопросы к ним для самостоятельной подготовки к зачету и список рекомендуемой литературы.
Общие методические указания
по самостоятельной подготовке к устной части зачета
Подготовка студентов очного отделения к зачету является одним из основных и трудоемких видов учебной деятельности. Эффективность этой деятельности во многом зависит от самостоятельной работы при подготовке к зачету. В часы самоподготовки необходимо самостоятельно изучить материал. При этом самостоятельную работу необходимо понимать не только как «домашнюю» работу по подготовке к практическому занятию, но и как всю совокупность предшествующих ему занятий:
- изучение задания и методических указаний к практическому занятию по данной теме;
- консультации накануне проведения зачета и получение индивидуальной методической помощи;
- изучение рекомендованной литературы, работа со словарями.
Для более эффективной работы с текстом, необходимо:
прочитать текст;
перевести текст, пользуясь словарем по необходимости;
ответить на вопросы, приведенные после текста;
по вопросам составить план собственного монологического высказывания по теме;
выделить для себя и выучить ключевые слова;
пересказать текст не менее двух раз;
при первом пересказе постараться пользоваться ключевыми словами и вопросами к тексту;
второй раз пересказать текст, не смотря на слова, текст, вопросы. Если это не удается, вернитесь к предыдущему пункту.
Topic 1. My Future Profession
Driving advances in heating technology are heating engineers. These engineers not only develop heating technology but also help with the installation and repair of heating units.
Heating engineers design and implement solutions to heating needs for residential developers, heating equipment manufacturers and individual clients who need heating equipment installed or repaired. They are also hired by construction managers to estimate what the heating needs are going to be for a building under construction, to determine how much space should be allocated for heating equipment, to determine which heating equipment is the most relevant to use and to troubleshoot issues whenever the heating equipment does not appear to work properly.
The usual work environment for a heating engineer is a residential, commercial or industrial building. Heating units use electricity, which leads to electrical wires that can harm the engineer if he is not careful. Some of these engineers spend their time in manufacturing plants owned by their companies, while other heating engineers have to travel extensively to construction sites and repair sites.
Just like other engineers, the heating engineer needs at least a bachelor’s degree in engineering in order to work as an engineer. Heating engineers must have thorough knowledge of both mechanical engineering and thermodynamics, according to Education-Portal.
Between 2008 and 2018, the need for heating engineers is expected to grow by 6 percent, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. These engineers are hired to provide increasingly sophisticated products in order to drive consumer demand.

Vocabulary: to troubleshoot issues – устранять неполадки
advances – продвижение, прогресс
heating engineer – инженер-теплотехник
installation - установка
repair - ремонт
heating units – отопительные установки
to design - разрабатывать
to implement – осуществлять, выполнять
heating needs – отопительные нужды
residential - жилой
heating equipment – отопител. обор-ниеwork environment – рабочая среда
to harm – причинять вред
bachelor’s degree – степень бакалавра
in order to – чтобы, с тем, чтобы
mechanical engineering -машиностроение
thorough knowledge of – глубокие знания
construction managers – инженеры-строители
construction sites – строительные объекты
to estimate - оценить
to determine - определить
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
1. Do heating engineers help with the installation and repair of heating units?
2. What are the main tasks of heating engineers?
3. What is the usual work environment for a heating engineer?
4. What degree does a heating engineer need in order to work?
5. Must heating engineers have thorough knowledge of both mechanical engineering and thermodynamics?
Topic 2. Types of Heating Systems
There are many different types of heating systems to consider: forced air, radiant heat, hydronic, steam radiant, and geothermal. Each type of heat should be considered for its effectiveness in meeting the budget and heating and cooling needs for the home.
The forced air heating system is most commonly seen in residential structures. It works by heating air in a furnace and then forcing the air out into various areas of the home through installed ductwork and vents.
The radiant heat heating system is often praised for its ability to produce natural and comfortable heat in a home. Heat is commonly delivered through a system of hot water tubes underneath the floor, although these tubes can also be installed in ceiling panels. The hot water is heated using a boiler.
Radiant heat is often slow to heat a room because the water must first be heated and circulated through the pipes. It can be expensive to install and maintain because of the difficult getting to the tubing systems if a problem occurs.
In a hot water baseboard system a boiler heats hot water, which then is circulated through tubes; for hydronic heat, these tubes are located in baseboard heating units attached to the walls in each room of the home. These systems are usually quiet, energy efficient, and may be fueled by electricity, oil, or natural gas.
Steam radiant heating systems heat a room through upright units referred to as "radiators." These systems use either one or two pipes, and heat water through a variety of methods such as electricity, oil, or natural gas. While these units may be energy efficient and warm a room quickly, they can be inconvenient for furniture placement, as the walls and surrounding area must be clear to avoid fire hazards.
Geothermal heating systems can be expensive to install; however, because of their ability to use the heat from the Earth to regulate temperature, they are said to greatly reduce the costs associated with heating and cooling a home.

Vocabulary: vents - вентиляция
radiant heat – лучистое тепло
hydronic – гидравлическая система
steam radiant - паровое отопление
geothermal - геотермальный
ductwork - воздуховод
to avoid fire hazards – избежать пожара
cooling - охлаждение ceiling panels – потолочные панели
boiler – нагреватель, бойлер
to maintain – обслуживать, поддерживать
baseboard - плинтус
attached - прикрепленный
placement - местоположение
to reduce the costs – снизить затраты
forced air heating system – принудительно-воздушное отопление
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
1. What are the main types of heating systems?
2. How should each type of heat be considered for?
3. What heating system is most commonly seen in residential structures?
4. What heating system can be expensive to install and maintain because of the difficult getting to the tubing systems?
Topic 3. The forced air heating system
The forced air heating system is most commonly seen in residential structures. It works by heating air in a furnace and then forcing the air out into various areas of the home through installed ductwork and vents. It is also commonly known as a central heating system because it comes from a central point in the home, where it can be filtered, humidified, or dehumidified. The air can be heated with various methods, including electricity, natural gas, propane, or oil. Since this system can be used to address both heating and cooling, the system is convenient for many people.
The ductwork required to use this system takes space in walls, so it may be difficult to install this system in an older home, and can require extra planning with new construction. The furnace system used may be noisy and heard throughout the home. This system can also move allergens throughout the house as the air circulates. The air filtration systems will require regular maintenance to retain optimal function. This system can be expensive due to maintenance costs.
Vocabulary:
the forced air heating system – система принудительного воздушного отопления
the air filtration system – система фильтрации воздуха
residential structures – жилой сектор
ductwork - воздуховод
vents - вентиляция
humidified - увлажнённый
to retain – сохранять, удерживать convenient - удобный
required - требуемый
to take space – занимать пространство
extra planning - перепланировка
maintenance costs – затраты на обслуживание
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
1. Is the forced air heating system most commonly seen in residential structures?
2. How does the forced air heating system work?
3. What is the forced air heating system usually called? Why?
4. How can the air be heated with?
5. Is the system convenient or non-convenient for many people?
6. What are the difficulties with the installation of the system?
7. Will the air filtration systems require regular maintenance to retain optimal function?
8. What can this system be expensive due to?
Topic 4. Thermal Networks
A thermal network is a representation (model) of the thermal characteristics of any system modeled by considering points (nodes) at discrete parts of the system that are linked by conductors through which heat may flow.
This type of thermal network is often described as a lumped parameter model because the thermal properties, such as the heat capacity, of a part of the system are “lumped” together on the node representing that part.
Building thermal network diagram for electrical equipment involves visualizing it as a thermal network with thermal resistances, heat generators and thermal capacitors. As the work is limited to steady state, thermal capacitors are absent. First the entire structure is discretized into number of nodes, each node representing a component with certain mass i.e. a lumped mass.
The nodes are taken as three types - diffusion nodes, boundary nodes and arithmetic nodes. Each node is connected to the other by a conductor which represents internal conduction resistance or convection resistance or radiation resistance.
Conductors are considered as two types — linear conductor and radiation conductors. Due to the current flow in a element (node), there is some internal heat generation due to I2R loss and that amount of heat is added as heat input at the corresponding node. With this the equipment is represented as a network with different types of nodes with heat generation and connected by different types of conductors.

Vocabulary:
conductor - проводник to involve - включать
representation - представление thermal capacitor – тепловой конденсатор
thermal network – тепловая сеть entire – весь, целый
points (nodes) - точки, узлы diffusion nodes – диффузные узлы
discrete – отдельный boundary nodes – пограничные узлы
to be linked - присоединяться corresponding - соответствующий
lumped parameter model –модель сосредоточенных параметров heat generation – выработка тепла
properties - свойства internal - внутренний
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
What is a thermal network?
What are the thermal properties?
Are the thermal properties “lumped” together on the node in a thermal network?
When are thermal capacitors absent?
What are the three types of nodes?
What can conductors be considered?
Topic 5. Types of Turbines
A turbine is a turbo machine with a moving part called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor.
The steam turbine is mainly used by thermal power plants that burn either fossil fuels or use nuclear energy to drive generators for consumer electricity. A steam turbine typically consists of conical, steel shell enclosing a central shaft along which a series of bladed disks are spaced like washers.
Some of gas turbines are used to drive electric generators, as in a gas turbine-electric locomotive, and high-speed tools. Gas turbine’s essential components are a compressor, a combustion chamber, and a turbine that resembles a steam turbine. The turbine drives the compressor, which feeds high-pressure air into the combustion chamber; there it is mixed with a fuel and burned, providing high-pressure gases to drive the turbine. The gas turbine is mainly used by jet aircraft.
Water or hydraulic turbines are identified with dams and the generation of hydroelectric power. When a turbine is operated by rapidly flowing or falling water, it is called an impulse turbine. In hydraulic turbines of the reaction type the turbine is underwater and is turned by both the weight and speed of its flow. Its shaft is vertical and has either spirally curved blades or ones that resemble a ship's propeller.
Wind turbines use an airfoil to generate a reaction lift from the moving fluid and impart it to the rotor. Wind turbines also gain some energy from the impulse of the wind, by deflecting it at an angle. Cross flow turbines are designed as an impulse machine, with a nozzle, but in low head applications maintain some efficiency through reaction, like a traditional water wheel.
Vocabulary:
rotor assembly – узел ротора combustion chamber – камера сгорания
shaft - вал to resemble – быть похожим на
blade - лопасть jet aircraft – самолетостроение
to impart - передавать hydraulic - гидравлический
to drive – приводить в действие dam – плотина, дамба
shell – оболочка, корпус weight - вес
washer – шайба, промывательairfoil – аэродинамический профиль
angle - угол deflect – отклонять,преломлятьAnswer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
What is a turbine?
How does the moving fluid act?
What does the steam turbine consist of?
What are gas turbines used to drive?
What is called an impulse turbine? hydraulic turbines of the reaction type?
Topic 6. Boilers
A boiler is an enclosed vessel that provides a means for combustion heat to be transferred to water until it becomes heated water or steam. The hot water or steam under pressure is then usable for transferring the heat to a process. Water is a useful and inexpensive medium for transferring heat to a process.
The source of heat for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or natural gas.
The boiler system comprises of a feed water system, steam system and fuel system. The feed water system provides water to the boiler and regulates it automatically to meet the steam demand. The steam system collects and controls the steam produced in the boiler. The fuel system includes all equipment used to provide fuel to generate the necessary heat.
The form and size of a boiler depends on the application: mobile steam engines such as steam locomotives, portable engines and steam-powered road vehicles typically use a smaller boiler that forms an integral part of the vehicle; stationary steam engines, industrial installations and power stations will usually have a larger separate steam generating facility connected to the point-of-use by piping.
The steam generator or boiler is an integral component of a steam engine when considered as a prime mover. A boiler incorporates a firebox or furnace in order to burn the fuel and generate heat. The generated heat is transferred to water to make steam, the process of boiling.
Vocabulary:
enclosed vessel – закрытый сосуд medium - среда portable engine - локомобиль
feed water system – система подачи воды vehicle – средство передвижения
steam demand - паропотребление to incorporate - включать
application - применение piping - трубопровод
facility - установка prime mover – первичный двигатель
industrial installation – промышленная установка
stationary steam engine –стационарная паровая машина
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
What is a boiler?
What does the boiler provide?
What is the source of heat for a boiler?
What does the boiler system comprise of?
Why does the feed water system provide water to the boiler and regulate it automatically?
What is a steam generator used to?
Does a boiler incorporate a firebox or furnace in order to burn the fuel and generate heat?
Topic 7. Generators at Thermal Power Plants
The turbine generator consists of a series of steam turbines interconnected to each other and a generator on a common shaft. There is a high pressure turbine at one end, followed by an intermediate pressure turbine, two low pressure turbines, and the generator.
As steam moves through the system and loses pressure and thermal energy it expands in volume, requiring increasing diameter and longer blades at each succeeding stage to extract the remaining energy. It is so heavy that it must be kept turning slowly even when shut down so that the shaft will not bow even slightly and become unbalanced. This is so important that it is one of only five functions of blackout emergency power batteries on site. Other functions are emergency lighting, communication, station alarms and turbo generator lube oil.
The generator contains a stationary stator and a spinning rotor, each containing miles of heavy copper conductor. The rotor spins in a sealed chamber cooled with hydrogen gas, selected because it has the highest known heat transfer coefficient of any gas and for its low viscosity. This system requires special handling during startup.
The steam turbine-driven generators have auxiliary systems enabling them to work satisfactorily and safely. The steam turbine generator being rotating equipment generally has a heavy, large diameter shaft. To minimize the frictional resistance to the rotation, the shaft has a number of bearings. Oil lubrication is provided to reduce the friction between shaft and bearing surface and to limit the heat generated.
Vocabulary:
to loose - терять emergency lighting – аварийное освещение
to expand in - расширяться station alarms – станция сигнализации
succeeding stage – последующая стадия lube oil – смазочное масло
to bow – наклоняться, гнуться sealed chamber – герметичная камера
spinning rotor – крутящийся ротор viscosity - вязкость
handling – управление, обслуживание auxiliary - вспомогательный
to enable – дать возможность bearings - подшипники
oil lubrication - смазка friction - трение
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
What does the turbine generator consist of?
Does a steam expand in volume moving through the system and losing pressure and thermal energy?
Why mustn’t the shaft bow even slightly and become unbalanced?
What are five functions of blackout emergency power batteries on site?
Where does a rotor spin?
Why do the steam turbine-driven generators have auxiliary systems?

Topic 8. Types of Power Stations
Nuclear power plants work on the chemical process of fission. Fission is a type of nuclear reaction in which the atoms of nuclear fuels absorb free neutrons, they split into two or more small nuclei and some free neutrons. In the process, large amount of energy is released. The free energy released by nuclear material is millions times more than that contained in an equal amount of any other traditional fuel. However, a lot of radioactive material is created in the process. This raises the problem of managing nuclear waste. Reducing threats involves high designing skills, extensive research and use of advanced technology.
Thermal Power Plants generate electrical energy from thermal energy. The heat generated by burning the fossil fuels is used to turn rotating machinery, most commonly a steam turbine or a gas turbine that changes the thermal energy into mechanical energy. The rotating turbine is attached to an alternator that converts the mechanical energy of the rotating turbine into electrical energy. Handling and disposal of ash plays an important role in maintaining the environmental balance.
Hydro Power Plants use the kinetic energy of flowing water to produce electrical energy. Hydro power plants store water in large reservoirs. Water in these reservoirs flow down the dam and rotate a turbine. As the blades of a turbine turn, so do the magnets inside the generator which is connected to the turbine. These magnets rotate past copper coils and with each rotation, electricity is produced. Their major drawback is their dependence on the hydrological cycle of the area where they are built. Direct benefits include availability of water for drinking and for crops, improved irrigation, good employment opportunities.
Solar energy is one of the most abundant natural resources that is capable of providing more power than the current demand requires. In most of the solar power plants the rays of the sun are concentrated into a single beam using lenses and mirrors. The beam is then used to heat a working fluid that is used to generate power. On the surface of the earth, various factors like day/night cycle, changing weather and seasons affect the process of energy collection.
Vocabulary:
fission - расщепление to rotate - вращать
to reduce threats – уменьшить угрозы drawback - недостаток
designing skills – навыки проектирования benefits - достоинства
extensive research – обширные исследования availability - способность
alternator - генератор the current demand – текущий спрос
disposal of ash – утилизация золы single beam – один луч
to store - хранить lenses - линзы
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
1. What process is called fission?
2. Does a steam turbine change the thermal energy into mechanical or electrical energy?
3. Where do hydro power plants store water?
4. What factors affect the process of energy collection?
Topic 9. Thermal Power Plants
A thermal power plant uses steam to spin turbines, which in turn feed electric generators. A thermal power plant is usually defined by the type of fuel used to heat the water and create steam. Coal, oil, and even solar and nuclear powers can be used to create the steam necessary to run a thermal plant.
Many thermal plants operate on a partially closed loop, using what is known as a Rankin cycle. Water is heated by fuel, until it becomes steam. Steam is passed through a series of chambers that make it stronger, hotter, and more powerful. The steam reaches the turbines and spins them, then is pushed through to a cooling storage area where it can condense back into water. The water can then be reused to create steam, completing the loop.
One of the major concerns with a thermal plant is the fuel used to generate steam from water. Fossil fuels have several built-in problems. In addition to the dwindling resources available, fossil fuels are generally heavily pollutant and are believed by many scientists to be a major contributing factor in global warming.
A thermal power plant is a mighty tool in everyday life on the planet; many regions receive the bulk of their energy supply from thermal plants. Experts say the technology requires advances and refinements to meet growing energy requirements.
The direct cost of electric energy produced by a thermal power station is the result of cost of fuel, capital cost for the plant, operator labour, maintenance, and such factors as ash handling and disposal.
Vocabulary:
thermal power plant - ТЭС reused – повторно используемый
to spin - вращать concerns – забота, беспокойство
to feed – питать, снабжать in addition to – в добавление к
closed loop – замкнутый контур dwindling - сокращение
to push through - проталкивать pollutant - загрязнитель
cooling storage area – место охлаждения mighty tool – мощный инструмент
bulk - объем advances - продвижение
refinements - усовершенствования to meet requirements – в соотв. с требованиями
the direct cost – прямые затраты operator labour – затраты на з/п
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
What does a thermal power plant use to spin turbines?
What process is known as a Rankin cycle?
What is one of the major concerns with a thermal plant?
Are fossil fuels generally heavily pollutant?
Many regions receive the bulk of their energy supply from thermal plants, don’t they?
Topic 10. Safety Regulation at a Power Station
Power plant employers are required to ensure employees not to perform maintenance on machinery or equipment that can start up unexpectedly or release stored energy. At least two employees must be present when equipment such as transformers are installed, removed or repaired.
All openings in power plant floors must be guarded so people can't accidentally walk into them. The guard can either be a railing or a cover. Floor openings include stairways, hatchways. A rail, fence, half-door or other equivalent barrier must guard wall openings with a drop of four feet or more.
Power plants must post a Danger sign near any confined space employees might have to enter or work in, if entering or working in the space poses a risk of serious physical harm. Power plants must also have a procedure for rescuing people from confined spaces and providing them with emergency services.
In power plants, proper and current identification markers can be the difference between a normal working day and disaster. Signs that identify motors, tools, equipment, oil guns, feeders, pulverizers and even a map of the area's location within the power plant may one day save the life of a worker or visitor.
Labels identifying different wires, lines and cables in a power plant make finding the correct line safe and simple. Easily seen markers that show the location of less-visible pipes, panels, valves, tubing, conduits, transmitters and nearby safety equipment are essential for a safe working environment.

Vocabulary:
to ensure - обеспечить a railing - перила
to perform maintenance - выполнять обслуживание hatchway - люк
release - выпустить harm – вред, урон
stored energy - накопленная энергия sign – знак, надпись
employer - работодатель pose a risk of – создать риск чего-л.
employee - работник confined space – закрытое помещение
opening - отверстиеemergency services – аварийный службы
guarded - защищенный disaster – несчастье, катастрофа
guard – защита, ограждение working environment – рабочая среда
Answer the questions upon the text and use them as a plan to retell the text:
What are power plant employers required to?Must all openings in power plant floors be guarded?
Can the guard be a railing or an opening?
What do openings include?
Power plants must have a procedure for rescuing people from confined spaces and providing them with emergency services, mustn’t they?
Do labels make finding the correct line safe and simple?
Рекомендуемая литература для подготовки к зачету
Луговая А.Л. Английский язык для студентов энергетических специальностей: Учебное пособие/ А.Л.Луговая. – М.: Высшая школа, 2009. – 150с.:ил.
Материалы Интернет:
http://wikipedia.org/http://en.wikipedia.org/http://www.buzzle.com/
http://www.twirpx.comhttp://www.wisegeek.com/
http://twt.mpei.ac.ru/
http://www.power.mag.comhttp://www.power-eng.com/http://worldenergy.orghttp://www.globalenergybusiness.comhttp://www.ehow.com/

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